History Vocab

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Hyksos
- Invaders that ruled Egypt
- use chariots to conquer Egypt
New Kingdom
powerful empire created by the pharaohs after overthrowing the Hyksos
Hatshepsut
- pharaoh whose reign was most noted for her trade expeditions, not war
Thutmose III
- Hatshepsut's stepson, expands Egypt's empire
Nubia
- region around the upper Nile River
Ramses II
Egypt's pharaoh
Kush
Kingdom in Nubia
Piankhi
- Kushite king
- conquers Egypt
- ousts Libyans
Meroe
- was closer to the Red Sea than Napata
- active trade spot among Africa, Arabia, and India
Assyria
- used military might to acquire empire across Southwest Asia
Sennacherib
- Assyrian king
- brutally destroys enemies
Nineveh
Assyrian Capital
Ashurbanipal
- built library of 20,000 tablets
- Epic of Gilgamesh
Medes
destroyed Nineveh
Chaldeans
- destroyed Nineveh
- Made Babylon capital of their own empire
- Astronomers
Nebuchadnezzar
- builds legendary hanging gardens of Babylon
- Builds tall ziggurats; astronomers make discoveries about solar system
Cyrus
- Persian King
- Governs with tolerance toward conquered peoples
- Honors local customs, including religious ones
- Allows Jews to return to Israel to rebuild temple of Jerusalem
Cambyses
- Cyrus's son
- conquers Egypt but rules unwisely
Darius
- seizes control of Cambyses
- establishes stability
- expands empire to India
Satrap
governors; rule each area of land
Royal Road
- Built by Darius
- Built to make communication within empire easier
Zoroaster
Persian thinker that develops a new religion
Confucius
- Scholar that wanted to restore order, harmony, good government
- Promotes Filial Piety
Filial Piety
respect for parents and ancestors
Bureaucracy
a trained civil service
Daoism
- philosophy is to understand nature and be free of desire
- influenced sciences, alchemy, astronomy, medicine
Legalism
- emphasizes the use of law to restore order; stifles criticism
- Teaches that obedience should be rewarded, disobedience punished
I Ching
- book of oracles that were to solve ethical or practical problems
- Readers used the book by throwing a set of coins, interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle, or prediction.
- helped people to lead a happy life by offering good advice and simple common sense.
Yin and Yang
- two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life.
- Yin represents all that is cold, dark, soft, and mysterious
- Yang is the opposite warm, bright, hard, and clear
- The symbol is a circle divided into halves; one side black, the other white
Shi Huandgi
- unifies China
- ends fighting
- conquers new lands
- Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qin officials
- murders Confucian scholars, burns books
- Establishes an autocracy
Autocracy
a government with unlimited power