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DNA and the Gene: Synthesis and Repair
Terms in this set (40)
Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP)
A human disease characterised by extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Caused by an autosomal recessive allele that inactivates the nucleotide excision DNA repair system.
All the hereditary information in an organism including not only genes but also stretches of DNA that do not contain genes.
The end of a linear chromosome that contains a repeated sequence of DNA.
In DNA replication, the strand of new DNA that is synthesised in one continuous piece. Also called continuous strand. Compare with lagging strand.
An enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds between nucleotides of DNA, "unzipping" a double-stranded DNA molecule.
The process by which mismatched base pairs in DNA are fixed.
A shell of protein enclosing the genome of a virus particle.
A short, single-stranded RNA molecule that base-pairs with DNA template strand and is elongated by DNA polymerase during DNA replication.
An enzyme that synthesises a short stretch of RNA to use as a primer during DNA replication.
The process by which a DNA polymerase recognises and removes a wrong base added during DNA replication and then continues synthesis.
Short segment of DNA produced during replication of the lagging strand template. Many Okazaki fragments make up the lagging strand in newly synthesised DNA.
A strand of DNA that is used as a template during DNA synthesis.
Complementary Base Pairing
The association between specific nitrogenous bases of nucleic acids stabilised by hydrogen bonding. Adenine pairs only with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA), and guanine pairs only with cytosine.
Deoxyribonucleoside Triphosphate (dNTP)
A monomer used by DNA polymerase to polymerise DNA. Consists of the sugar deoxyribose, a base (A, T, G, or C), and three phosphate groups.
The Y-shaped site at which a double-stranded molecule of DNA is separated into two single strands for replication.
The macromolecular machine that copies DNA; includes DNA polymerase, helicase, primase, and other enzymes.
See leading strand.
The way DNA replicates, in which each strand of an existing DNA molecule serves as a template to create a new complementary DNA strand. It is called semiconservative because each newly replicated DNA molecule conserves one of the parental strands and contains another, newly replicated strand.
An enzyme that adds DNA to the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) by catalysing DNA synthesis from an RNA template that is part of the enzyme.
An enzyme that prevents the twisting of DNA ahead of the advancing replication fork by cutting the DNA, allowing it to unwind, and rejoining it.
An enzyme that joins pieces of DNA by catalysing the formation on a phosphodiester bond between the pieces.
Nucleotide Excision Repair
The process of removing a damaged region in one strand of DNA and replacing it with the correct sequence using the undamaged strand as a template.
Origin of Replication
The site on a chromosome at which DNA replication begins.
See lagging strand.
In DNA replication, the strand of new DNA that is synthesised discontinuously in a series of short pieces that are later joined. Also called discontinuous strand. Compare with leading strand.
The secondary structure of DNA, consisting of two antiparallel DNA strands wound each other.
The strand of DNA that is newly replicated from an existing template strand of DNA.
Any enzyme that catalyses synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs)
Single-Strand DNA-Binding Proteins (SSBP)
A protein that attaches to separated strands of DNA during replication or transcription, preventing them from re-forming a double helix.
Within a double-stranded DNA molecule, adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine and cytosine forms hydrogen bonds with guanine. This arrangement _____.
permits complementary base pairing
Which of the following characteristics, structures, or processes is common to bacteria and viruses?
Genetic material composed of nucleic acid
Put the following steps of DNA replication in chronological order.
1. Single-stranded binding proteins attach to DNA strands.
2. Hydrogen bonds between base pairs of antiparallel strands are broken.
3. Primase binds to the site of origin.
4. DNA polymerase binds to the template strand.
5. An RNA primer is created.
2, 1, 3, 5, 4
What is the role of DNA ligase in the elongation of the lagging strand during DNA replication?
It joins Okazaki fragments together.
Telomere shortening puts a limit on the number of times a cell can divide. Research has shown that telomerase can extend the life span of cultured human cells. How might adding telomerase affect cellular ageing?
Telomerase eliminates telomere shortening and retards ageing.
Who performed classic experiments that supported the semiconservative model of DNA replication?
Meselson and Stahl
DNA is synthesised through a process known as _____.
In a healthy cell, the rate of DNA repair is equal to the rate of DNA mutation. When the rate of repair lags behind the rate of mutation, what is a possible fate of the cell?
The cell can be transformed to a cancerous cell.
In trying to determine whether DNA or protein is the genetic material, Hershey and Chase made use of which of the following facts?
DNA contains phosphorus, whereas protein does not.
use the host cell to copy themselves and make viral proteins
Semiconservative replication involves a template. What is the template?
one strand of the DNA molecule
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