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Teachings of Islam

Shahada: Declaration of faith> 1 God> Allah
Salat: Islamic prayer> 5 daily prayers
Zakat: Alms Giving> Giving to the poor
Siyam: Fasting (ritual) as compensation for repentance (forgiveness)
Hajii: Mecca> Holy Land> Visit once in your lifetime

Impact of the Crusades

Trade was opened up between Europe and the Middle East
Animosity was created between the Christians and the Muslims
The Catholic Church began to lose power
Advanced knowledge and technology begins to move from the Middle East to Europe
The Black Death was brought to Europe
Towns and Cities developed

Effects of the Black Death

It killed off 75 million Europeans or about 1/3 of the population of Europe
The peasants benefited because the survivors were offered higher wages and freedom, and could get fertile workable land
The government controlled the prices or prohibited certain items
The Catholic Church lost power because the Catholics thought that god had for forsaken them
Jews were persecuted
Radical treatments were developed for the plague

Role of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages

The Catholic Church controlled most of the life of the average peasant, since the average person did not live much more than 30 years, they needed to go to church and pray and follow the rules and get all 7 Sacraments to reach heaven

Major Beliefs of Martin Luther, John Calvin, compared to the Catholic Church

Martin Luther: Salvation by faith alone, elected council should head church, hold position only as long as you do a good job, the Bible is the only truth.
John Calvin: Predetermination, wealth indicates God's favor, WORK
Catholic Church: indulgences: pay for forgiveness Simony: selling of Church offices
monopoly of god's word

What makes the Renaissance different than the Middle Ages?

The Catholic Church was declining in the Renaissance, knowledge was being pursued, cities, and towns were common, nations were developing, the manor system and feudalism were less prevalent, leaders started to oppose the Catholic Church, nations began to form, emphasis on art, science, math, literature, architecture, music, etc... in areas further from Rome, scientists could make discoveries unimpeded by the controlling Church.

Compare life in medieval towns to life on the manor.

Manors were run by a noble or prominent figure, and in exchange for protection from the outside world, serfs would work the land for the nobles, and the Catholic Church was much more prevalent
In towns, although dirty, and overpopulated, attacks and raids from barbarians were much less of a worry, towns also could have their own sort of government rather than being ruled by a noble

What were the motivations for the Age of Exploration?

The motivations were to be able to go to Asia to obtain valuable luxury items that came in small, caravan-transported, and expensive amounts. Mapping, charting, and resources were also important

Explain the advances made in artistic techniques during the Renaissance

During the Renaissance, artists gained access to new paints and materials, art started being created for things other than the church, art was bought and sold, humanism helped art to become more popular

Explain the ideas of humanism. Include classical ideas and themes

People who studied Greek and Roman culture, they studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history. It brought back Greek and Roman culture into Europe.

What were the effects of Reformation?

The reformation created a following of Martin Luther, and John Calvin started the Protestant Reformation. the Catholic Church also brought back the Inquisition and reinstated the Jesuits

What was the response of the Catholic Church to the Reformation?

The Church brought back the inquisition and reinstated the Jesuits

What was the impact of the Age of Exploration

The age of exploration caused many Indian tribes to die from disease, colonies, outposts, and trading areas were set up, resources began to move from the new world to Europe, Britain developed the world's most powerful navy

Explain feudalism and manorialism

Feudalism: A system in which lords/nobles/kings, controlled large tracts of land that peasants worked and in return, they get protection
Manorialism: commerce, political, economic, and social system that peasants followed because they were dependent on the land of a noble

Ferdinand & Isabella

The king and queen of Spain that push the Muslims out of Spain, brought back the Inquisition, pushed out the Jewish population

Divine Right

The belief that a ruler is given power by God himself


Rulers have absolute power and answer to no one


The massive Spanish fleet from the time of Phillip II, and Ferdinand & Isabella

Louis XIV

King of France that made France, and Paris specifically the center of art and fashion. He also had Versailles constructed


The amazingly beautiful, artistic, expensive, iconic, well-known, and the palace was planned, by the greatest architects, designers, and engineers, and then it was furnished by the best with the best.


The Cardinal that was the adviser to Louis XIV, Richelieu was in charge of the money


The system where all of the wealth in riches, and valuable materials were brought back to the mother country and were kept there and did not leave.

Edict of Nantes

Toleration of Jews, it was later revoked by Louis XIV

Act of Supremecy

It was instituted by Henry VIII, the act made the king the head of the church

Petition of Right

Institutes the policy of habeas corpus or body of evidence


The second branch of British Government other than the King, it was in charge of British money and was made up of two houses, the House of Commons and the House of Lords

Oliver Cromwell

The leader of Parliament in the time of Charles II, Charles III, and William & Mary. He was Puritan and tried to make Britain a utopia

Glorious Revolution

Was the revolution that put Parliament in a position that had greater power than the king when Parliament had asked both Charles III and William & Mary to be King/Queen,

Triangular Trade

The trade between the New World, Europe, and Africa. Sugar from the sugarcane plantations in the New World was sent to Europe where it was turned into rum, the rum was then sent to Africa, where it was traded for slaves that were sent to the New World.

Middle Passage

A passage by river that led through the continents of North & South America that could be used to reliably reach Asia, that avoided sailing around the continent


A system of large Spanish plantations that were built in the New World to grow crops such as sugar cane. The plantations used large numbers of slaves for labor.

Treaty of Tordesillas

The treaty split the New World between Spain and Portugal along a line. Portugal got Brazil, while Spain got the rest of South America


The scientist/astronomer that developed the theory that the sun is the center of the universe, and that everything goes around it in a circular orbit but does not rotate.


Saw sunspots, satellites around Jupiter, and stated that the Earth rotates as it goes around the sun. He was arrested, taken to the Inquisition, where he recanted to save his life, but had his book published after his death.

Francis Bacon

Came up with the Scientific Method


Famous author who wrote the Prince, his works are still applicable today.

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