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760 torr, 100000 N/1M^2

As altitude increases, pressure...


Structure of the atmosphere=

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere

Why use mercury in a barometer?

It's dense, and it works in extreme temperatures

Down sides to using an aneroid barometer

less exact, more mechanically complex than a mercury barometer

How does the finger over the straw thing work?

Before you put your finger on it pressure inside and outside are equal, you cover it and lift it up, some water falls out and the gas in the top part of the straw expands making the pressure inside the straw higher until the inside pressure + weight of the water = outside pressure.

hot stars are_, cooler stars are _

blueish, reddish




light power of the sun

What makes the sun shine?

thermonuclear FUSION

In the sun, 4H becomes


Layers of the sun, inside to outside:

nuclear fusion, radiative zone, convection zone

Solar atmosphere, inside to outside:

Solar interior, photosphere, chromosphere, corona.

Where does visible light come from?

The photosphere

Local winds are caused by

bodies of water/land, mountains, elevation differences, vegetation differences (forests, deserts).

Prevailing winds are caused by

uneven heating

How do the ocean currents move around North America?

Down the west coast, up the east coast.

How do the ocean currents move around South America?

Down the east coast, up the west coast.

Dangerous current around the tip of South Africa

The west wind drift

Absolute humidity=

the mass of water that a given volume of air contains

Hot air has a _ capacity to hold water than cold air


Relative humidity=

the ratio of actual water content to possible water capacity at a given temperature. (Content/Capacity)100%

Dew point=

the temperature at which relative humidity=100%

Rainshadow/Orographic lifting=

prevailing winds come over water, becoming moist- it hits a mountain- it rises up over the mountain- it cools and condenses into clouds/rain- it comes over the mountain and warms up, but it has lost all of its moisture, so it's dry and hot = desert.

Air masses have

characteristic temperature and humidity throughout.

Air masses are identified by...

the surface they're over (Continental, Maritime, Arctic, Polar, Tropical)

Alpha particles=

4 nucleons (top number), 2 protons (bottom number). A helium nucleus.

Beta particles=

0 nucleons (top number), -1 protons/charge (bottom number). An electron.

Gamma particles=

0,0. High energy radiation.


1 nucleon (top number), 0 protons (bottom number)


1 nucleon (top number), 1 proton (bottom number)

Nuclear fission=

When a heavier nucleus is split into two or more pieces. Doesn't happen naturally, must be induced.

Critical mass=

A minimum amount of an element needed to sustain a chain reaction.

When resistors are in series, current is _ and total voltage =

the same throughout, V1+V2

When resistors are in parallel, current is

Split, total current= I1+I2.

Magnetic fields go from...

North to South

Current goes from...

+ to -

Right hand rule #1- current carrying wires.

Thumb=direction of current, fingers wrap around wire in the direction the field goes.

Right hand rule #2- current carrying loops.

fingers point in direction of loop, thumb points in the direction of the field INSIDE the loop.

Right hand rule #3- moving charges in a magnetic field.

thumb= direction of current or velocity, fingers=direction of field, direction of palm=force in particles are positive.

Electromagnetic induction

exerting a force on a charged particle in a magnetic field creates a current (or potential difference).

Lenz's law=

the direction of an induced current (or voltage), will be such that it opposes whatever caused it/change.

positive delta x=

displacement in a positive direction

negative delta x=

displacement in a negative direction

positive v=

movement in a positive direction

negative v=

moving in a negative direction



If two forces are an action reaction pair, they are...


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