Ecology 3

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D
Which statement about changing ecosystem properties during succession is false?

A) biomass increases

B) community respiration increases

C) primary production increases

D) soil depths decrease

E) stream spiraling lengths decrease
Guild
A set of species that have similar ways of making their living make up a __________.
Disturbance
A relatively discrete ecological event that kills or damages organisms or alters the physical or biological environment is called a __________.
C
How does canopy shading influence succession of pines and deciduous trees in the Piedmont of North Carolina?

A) Canopy shading by deciduous trees is required for growth of pines.

B) Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents establishment of pines until late in succession.

C) Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents persistence of pines in late successional stages.

D) Canopy shading by pines prevents establishment of deciduous trees.

E) Canopy shading by pines kills deciduous trees that were established early in succession.
C
In the area of Glacier Bay, Alaska, the climax community is

A) hemlock forest.

B) muskeg.

C) hemlock forest on steep slopes, and muskeg on shallower slopes.

D) hemlock forest on shallow slopes, and muskeg on steeper slopes.

E) Dryas mats with scattered alders and cottonwoods.
E
Prairie dog disturbances maximize plant diversity

A) by burrowing and grazing.

B) by creating patches open for dispersal.

C) by allowing good competitors and good colonizers to coexist in the grassland.

D) at intermediate levels.

E) All of the choices are correct.
E
In most ecological communities, we find

A) more rare species than moderately common or very common ones.

B) more very common species than moderately common or rare ones.

C) no rare species—apparently "rare" species are artifacts of incomplete sampling.

D) roughly equal proportions of rare, moderately common, and very common species.

E) more moderately common species than rare or very common ones.
C
"Primary" succession is succession that

A) involves establishment of primary producers where there were none.

B) leads to establishment of a climax community dominated by primary producers.

C) occurs on newly exposed geologic substrates, not organic soil.

D) occurs where organic soils have been exposed but not destroyed by disturbance.

E) occurs after fire or agricultural abandonment.
B
In the Grass Park Experiment, researchers have fertilized a grassland at the Rothamsted Experimental Station in Great Britain since 1856. Sampling for species diversity through time shows that rank-abundance curves have gotten __________ over time, indicating _________ species evenness.

A) steeper; increasing

B) steeper; decreasing

C) more shallow; increasing

D) more shallow; decreasing

E) Rank-abundance curves have not changed through time.
D
Disturbances can alter a community's stable environmental conditions, also called its

A) frequency.

B) intensity.

C) heterogeneity.

D) equilibrium.

E) niche space.
B
Given two habitats, Habitat 1 and Habitat 2, which habitat would have greater species diversity?
Habitat 1: Species A, 10; Species B, 10; Species C, 10
Habitat 2: Species A, 10; Species B, 10; Species C, 10; Species D, 10; Species E, 10

A) Habitat 1

B) Habitat 2

C) neither; Habitat 1 and Habitat 2 have equal diversity

D) neither; Habitat 1 and Habitat 2 have equal species richness

E) neither; Habitat 1 and Habitat 2 have equal species evenness
True
Higher species evenness in a community can be measured by a shallower slope on a rank-abundance curve.

True

False
A
During succession in Arizona streams, nitrogen retention

A) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.

B) increases steadily through succession.

C) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.

D) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.

E) first decreases, but later increases.
C
According to the "facilitation" hypothesis, pioneer species modify the environment in ways that

A) make it more suitable for their own survival, and less suitable for other species.

B) make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of other pioneer species.

C) make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.

D) make it less suitable for survival of all species.

E) make it more suitable for survival of all species.
B
During primary succession at Glacier Bay, species diversity continues to increase throughout succession for which group(s) of plants?

A) tall shrubs and trees

B) low shrubs and herbs

C) mosses

D) lichens

E) all groups of plants
B
Robert MacArthur's study of forest warblers suggested that

A) fewer warbler species can survive in more complex habitats.

B) warbler species diversity increases with habitat complexity.

C) warbler species diversity decreases with habitat complexity.

D) most warblers have rather similar foraging niches.

E) None of the choices are correct.
A
Joseph Connell's "intermediate disturbance hypothesis" proposes that

A) species diversity is highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.

B) species diversity is lowest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.

C) population growth rates are highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.

D) competitive exclusion is fastest at intermediate levels of disturbance.

E) None of the choices are correct.
E
In secondary succession on abandoned fields in the Piedmont of North Carolina, important pioneer species include

A) horsetails.

B) Dryas.

C) broomsedge (Andropogon).

D) pine seedlings.

E) crabgrass and horseweed.
C
In the Amazon forest, slight changes in soil properties tend to be correlated with

A) similarly slight differences in plant communities.

B) no detectable differences in plant communities.

C) dramatic differences in plant communities.

D) dramatic differences in plant communities only if the soil property in question is moisture.

E) dramatic differences in plant communities only if the soil property in question is bedrock type
B
High nitrogen retention early in stream succession is probably due to

A) nitrogen fixation by aquatic fungi.

B) increasing biomass of algal and animal populations.

C) increasing nitrogen inputs from surrounding terrestrial soils.

D) increasing binding of nitrogen to developing organic sediments.

E) reduced denitrification following disturbance.
C
___________ occurs in areas where disturbance destroyed the previous community without destroying the soil.

A) Pioneer succession


B) Climax succession


C) Secondary succession


D) Primary succession


E) Disturbance succession
Succession
The change in plant, animal, and microbial communities in an area following disturbance or the creation of new substrate is called _________.
D
A simple tree community consists of 4 maples, 3 oaks, and 1 alder. The species richness of this community is

A) 0.42.

B) 0.97.

C) 1.5.

D) 3.

E) not possible to calculate from the data given.
E
A community is defined as

A) a group of organisms that all make their living in a similar way.

B) a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.

C) the portion of a defined area that supports life.

D) a group of subpopulations living in separate locations with active exchange of individuals among subpopulations.

E) an association of interacting species inhabiting a defined area.
A
On intertidal boulders in California, the diversity of diatoms and algae

A) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.

B) increases steadily through succession.

C) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.

D) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.

E) first decreases, but later increases.
D
In the Piedmont of North Carolina, as plant diversity increases through secondary succession, bird diversity

A) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.

B) increases steadily through succession.

C) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.

D) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.

E) first decreases, but later increases.
A
During primary succession at Glacier Bay, overall plant species diversity

A) first increases rapidly, then levels off.

B) increases steadily throughout succession.

C) increases slowly at first, then more rapidly after a few hundred years.

D) peaks at intermediate successional stages.

E) decreases steadily throughout succession.
C
As Hawaiian lava flows age over 4 million years,

A) total soil phosphorous levels decrease.

B) total soil phosphorous levels increase.

C) total soil phosphorous stays about the same, but more phosphorous becomes refractory.

D) total soil phosphorous stays about the same, but more phosphorous becomes weatherable.

E) phosphorous limitation of primary production becomes less important.
B
In the "transition phase" of forest succession,

A) biomass increases rapidly as the community reorganizes.

B) biomass declines from an earlier peak.

C) biomass stays constant, but species composition turns over rapidly.

D) nutrient export increases dramatically and soils become depleted.

E) one climax community gives way to another.
D
The pioneer species at Glacier Bay, Alaska include

A) mosses.

B) Dryas.

C) alders.

D) horsetails.

E) hemlocks.
C
In plants, a combination of growth dynamics and structure is known as ____?

A) cohort

B) guild

C) life form

D) phenotype

E) B&D
C
Species diversity is composed of ______?

A) Number of species present

B) Population of members of species present

C) A & B

D) Not listed
C
A ___________ is integral to the health of a ecosystem.

A) dominant species

B) Lotka species

C) Keystone species

D) Tertiary consumer
F
Species dominance within a community can be measured by which of the following:

A) cover

B) density

C) frequency

D) importance value

E) B & C

F) all
A
Preston graphed abundance of species in collections as frequency distribution and these resembled:

A) bell-shaped curves

B) sigmoidal tendencies

C) transdential convergences
C
Succession can be defined by all the following EXCEPT:

A) an orderly and directional change in plant communities

B) a predictable change in plant communities

C) seasonal changes in plant communities

D) changes in animal communities taken place in a span of time from 1 -500 years

E) B & D
B
Communities where small, random changes in plant numbers occur around some long-term mean:

A) Apex community

B) Climax community

C) Seral community

D) Typical community
E
Begins with the germination of r-selected species from seeds already in soil:

A) Pioneer succession

B) Autogenic succession

C) Primary succession

D) Xerarch succession

E) Secondary succession
A
____________ begins with a body of water, progresses to a marsh-like state, and finally to a stand of native vegetation:

A) Hydrarch succession

B) Oldfield succession

C) Xerarch succession
B
Allogenic succession includes all the following changes except:

A) those caused by long-term drought

B) those caused by changes in soil due to plants

C) those caused by introduction of exotics

D) those caused by change in sea level or topography
edge
Species associated with ecotone are _____ species.
interior
Species not found in ecotones are _______ species.
ecotones
Physical and biological transitional habitat between two ecosystems.
landscape
Heterogeneous area composed of several ecosystems.
D
On islands and habitat patches on continents, species richness _____ with area and _________ with isolation:

A) decreases, stays the same

B) increases, increases

C) decreases, increases

D) increases, decreases