Interpersonal Communications 2nd Test: Chapter 5-9
Terms in this set (123)
What is deeply influenced by our nationality, ethnicity, religion, gender and many other factors ?
What theory states that members of assorted co-cultures may get the dominant culture to accommodate their co-cultural identity, assimilate into the dominant culture, or seperate themselves entirely from it ?
Co-Cultural Communication Theory
Members of a society who don't conform to the dominant culture-by way of language, values, lifestyle, or physical appearance form what culture ?
attempting to be accepted into the dominant culture
What model contends that our prejudiced views, rooted in stereotypes cause us to see other groups benevolently or with hostility ?
Stereotype Content Model
What two cultures strongly influences the extent to which we value personal achievement personal achievements and independence over group identity ?
individualistic and collectivist cultures
In which culture do people tend to value independence and personal achievement ?
In which culture do people emphasize group identity, interpersonal harmony, and the well-being of in-groups ?
What can the directness or indirectness of our communicationbe impacted by
experience with high and low context-culture
Culture when others within their culture will share the same viewpoints and perceive situations in the very same way.
Culture when people tend not to presume others share their beliefs, attitudes, and values ?
What determines our acceptance of life's unpredictability
level of uncertainty avoidance
the degree to which people in a particular culture view unequal distribution of power as acceptable
What do we learn growing up that help us decide when, where and how to appropriately communicate our emotions ?
What is how we confront people of different social status affected by of our culture ?
What impacts the importance we place on personal achievement, assertiveness, compassion, and cooperation ?
masculine and feminine cultural values
What trait do we demonstrate by accepting other's expressions of their culture as part of their interpersonal communication, avoiding the temptation to judge others, and treating others with respect ?
What is the opposite of world-mindedness that is significant barrier to intellectual competence ?
What do we develop by observing behavior and analyzing the various forces influences it ?
What encourages us to adapt our communication to gain approval and establish relationships, as long as we avoid irritating others' accents or dialects.
Communication accommodation theory
Cultural values that include the accumulation of material wealth as an indicator of success, assertiveness, and personal achievement ?
masculine cultural values
Cultural values that emphasize compassion and cooperation
feminine cultural values
When people view time as a precious resource
mono-chronic time orientation
When people don't view time as a resource to be spent, saved or guarded
poly-chronic time orientation
What theory states that people are motivated to adapt their communication when they seek social approval, when they wish to establish relationships with others, and when they vie others' language use as appropriate.
Communication accommodation theory
an active and complex process
What is the first step of listening called that involves "seeing" or hearing the communication of others ?
What is the second step of listening that involves devoting attention to the information you received ?
Systematically putting aside thoughts that aren't relevant to the interaction at hand
What is the third step of listening that involves interpreting the meaning of another person's communication by comparing newly receive information against our past knowledge?
What types of memory does the meaning of others' communication require us to to compare using knowledge to evaluate the meaning of new information ?
short and long term memory
The part of your mind devoted to permanent information storage ?
The part of your mind that temporarily houses the information while you seek to understand its meaning
What does Active listening require in communication of others in clear and constructive ways.
communicating their attention and focus to you
What are indications of effective responding ?
feedback and back-channel cues
verbal and nonverbal behaviors to communicate attention and understanding while others are talking
verbal and nonverbal behaviors used such as nodding or making comments like "Uh-huh", "Yes", and "that makes sense"
What is another technique that you can use to help you convey understanding but if you use it extensively face to face, your partners might find it annoying ?
Summarizing others' comments after they have finished speaking
What ability is listening effectiveness measured in ?
devices that aid memory
purposes for listening
What are the five purposes for listening
comprehend, discern, analyze, and to support
What type of listeners want brief, to the point and accurate messages from others and can grow impatient
What type of listeners view listening as an opportunity to establish commonalities between themselves and others ?
What type of listeners prefer to be intellectually challenged by the messages they received during interpersonal encounters and enjoy receiving complex provocative information ?
What can have a huge impact on listening styles ?
gender and culture
a natural result of fluctuating information
an especially destructive form of listening and can have serious consequences
What listening must you do to try and deceive others and is considered unethical ?
behaving as your listening but really not
listening that involve deliberately trying to attack others
people who posts messages designed soley to annoy others
Listening that involves people to seek to turn the focus of the coversation back to themselves?
What communication do we generally use when interacting with others that involves spoken or written language?
What do we employ words as when we represent people, objects, and ideas ?
What two rules is verbal communication governed by that define meanings and clarify conversational structure ?
constitutive and regulative rules
What rule defines word meaning; tell us which words represent which objects ?
What rule govern how we use language when we verbally communicate ?
When partners are in personal relationships what do they generally use that convey intimacy ?
Words and phrases that have unique meanings to them ?
What do large groups develop that include distinct pronunciations ?
Variations on language rules shared by large groups or particular regions
What meanings can we convey when we speak
denotative and conntative
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word
Understanding of a word's meaning based on the situation and the shared knowledge between communication partners
What can suggests that our capacity for thinking is defined by our language ?
What causes people from different cultures to experience different realities ?
The theory that languages create variations in the ways cultures perceive and think about our world
What power can we use to control language
Creating linguistic symbols to represent people objects,places and ideas
Whenever we interact with others using language what actions do we perform ?
What is the most important part of cooperative verbal communication ?
producing messages that are understandable, taking active ownership for what you are saying by using "I" language, and making others feel included
cooperative verbal communication
What principle must you abide by when using cooperative verbal communication ?
What can be avoided if language is informative, relevant and clear ?
What should negative evaluations and expressions should you avoid express through
What should you replace "you" language with
What language also be a good means of fostering a sense of inclusiveness ?
When others display this action it is best to remain polite or remove yourself from the encounter
the tendency to attack others self-concepts rather than their positions o topics of conversation
What is the most common form of deception
when people deliberately use informative,untruthful, irrelevant, or vague language for the purpose of misleading others
leaving important and relevant information out of messages
when people dismiss the vadility of what another person says
What can inhibit people from communicating competently with fear and anxiety ?
What can help overcome apprehension ?
What includes all unspoken behavioral displays and generally carries more meaning than non verbal communication ?
verbal and nonverbal behaviors that convey contradictory meanings
What shapes people's perception and use of nonverbal communication
culture and gender
the different means for translating information non-verbally
nonverbal communication codes
the behaviors that most people associate with nonverbal communication such as facial expressions, gestures, and body postures
What are four different forms of gestures commonly used ?
emblems, illustrators, regulators, and adaptors
What form of gesture represents specific verbal meaning ?
What form of gesture represents accent or illustrate verbal messages ?
What form of gesture control the exchange of conversational turns during interpersonal encounter ?
Touching gestures often unconsciously made that serve a psychological encounters
What can something as body posture communicate substanial information to others ?
immediacy and power
Different features of the voice contribute the which nonverbal code ?
the degree to which you find something interesting or attractive
the ability to control or influence other people or events
When people vary their duration, placement, and strength of touch to communicate a range of meanings
What type of touch do we use when we want to accomplish something such as physical therapy positioning a clien'ts arm
functional professional touch
What type of touch derives from social norms and expectations ex:handshake ?
Social Polite Touch
A touch used to express liking for another person
A touch indicating deep emotional feeling, ex: two romantic couples holding hands or two close friends embracing
love intimacy touch
An intentional touch designed to physically stimulate another person
sexual arousal touch
A touch designed to hurt and humiliate others, involving forms of physical violence like grabbing, slapping, and hitting
aggressive arousal touch
forms of physical distance
What are three forms of physical distance
intimate, personal, social, and public space
What personal space ranges between 0 to 18 inches ?
What personal space ranges between 18 inches and 4 feet when we during encounters with friends ?
What personal space ranges between 4 to 12 feet such as when communicating in the workplace ?
What personal space ranges between upward from 12 feet during formal occasions such as public speeches or college lectures ?
What do humans experience when they resent perceived invasions of personal domains ?
What can strongly mold others' impression of us ?
our physical appearance
What do we use to portray who we aren't others and to communicate information regarding our worth, status, and power ?
What feautures can send distinct messages about status and mood
What feature functions to display how we are feeling ?
the feeling of closeness and "union" that exist between us and our partners
refers to the interpersonal behaviors we use to exert power and influence over others
the willingness to allow others to exert power over us