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Which substance in the following reaction is being reduced?


Which of the following reactions produces the most molecules of ATP during aerobic metabolism?

acetyl CoA -> CO2 -> H2O

Which of the following processes does not generate ATP?

the Calvin-Benson cycle

Which of the following compounds has the greatest amount of energy for a cell?


Which of the following is the best definition of the Krebs cycle?

a series of chemical reactions in which NADH is produced from the oxidation of pyruvic acid

Which of the following is the best definition of respiration?

a sequence of carrier molecules with an inorganic molecue as the final electron acceptor

Which culture produces the most lactic acid?

E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35C without O2 for 5 days

Which culture produces the most ATP?

E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35C with O2 for 5 days

Which culture uses NAD+?

both a and b

Which culture uses the most glucose?

E. coli growing in glucose broth at 35C without O2 for 5 days

Which of the following does not kill endospores?


Which of the following is most efective for sterilizing mattresses and plastic Petri dishes?

ethylene oxide

Which of these disinfectants does not act by disrupting the plasma membrane?


Which of the following cannot be used to sterilize a heat-labile solution stored in a plastic container?


Which of the following is not a characteristic of quaternary ammonium compounds?


A classmate is trying to determine how a disinfectant might kill cells. You observed that when he spilled the disinfectant in your reduced litmus milk, the litmus turned blue again. You suggest to your classmate that

the disinfectant might oxidize molecules

Which of the following is most likely to be bactericidal?

ionizing radiation

Which of the following is used to control microbial growth in foods?

organic acids

Which disinfectant is the most effective?

disinfectant b the one with all +'s going down

Which disinfectant is bactericidal?

all of them

The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage?


The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient as naked DNA in solution?


Feedback inhibition differs from repression because feedback inhibition

stops the action of preexisting enzymes

Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by

all of the above mutation, insertion of transposons, acquiring plasmids

Suppose you inoculate three flasks of minimal salts broth with E. coli. Flask A contains glucose. Flask B contains glucose and lactose. Flask C contains lactose. After a few hours of incubation, you test the flasks for the presence of b-galactosidase. Which flask do you predict will have this enzyme?

the one that has lactose in it only

Plasmids differ from transposons because plasmids

are self-replicated outside the chromosome

The mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the lac operon

catabolite repression

The mechanism by which lactose controls the lac operon


Two daughter cells are most likely to inherit which one of the following from the parent cell?

a change in a nucleotide in DNA

Which of the following is not a method of horizontal gene transfer?

binary fission

Restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that

phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell

The DNA probe, 3' -GGCTTA, will hybridize with which of the following?


Which of the following is the fourth basic step to genetically modify a cell?


The following enzymes are used to make cDNA. What is the second enzyme used to make cDNA?


If you put a gene in a virus, the next step in genetic modification would be


You have a small gene that you want replicated by PCR. You add radioactively labeled nucleotides to the PCR thermalcycler. After three replication cycles, what percentage of DNA single strands are radiocatively labeled?


Pieces of human DNA stored in yeast cells


A population of cells carrying a desired plasmid


Self-replicating DNA for transmitting a gene from one organism to another


A gene that hybridizes with mRNA


Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

antihelminthic -- inhibition of cell wall synthesis

All of the following are modes of action of antiviral drugs except?

inhibition of protein synthesis at 70S ribosomes

Which of the following modes of action would not be fungicidal?

inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis

An antimicrobial agent should meet all of the following criteria except

the production of hypersensitivites

The most selective antimicrobial activity would be exhibited by a drug that

inhibits cell wall synthesis

Antibiotics that inhibit translation have side effects

at the 70S ribosomes in eukaryotic cells

Which of the following will not affect eukaryotic cells?

all of the above will affect them

Cell membrane damage causes death because

cell contents leak out

A drug that intercalates into DNA has the following effects. Which one leads to the others?

It interferes with DNA replication

Chloramphenicol binds to the 50S portion of a ribosome, which will interfere with

translation in prokaryotic cells.

Glucose + lactose

line with nothing on it

Glucose/ no lactose

line with R on it

Lactose / no glucose

line with polymerase and SA on it

No glucose/ no lactose

line with polymerase, SA, and R on it

What is the inducer for the lactose operon?

the repressor protein

In the above diagram what does S represent, and under what conditions is it produced by the cell?

Signal protein and it is produced by the cell when ...

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis?

Penicillin - narrow spectrum - gram positive

Injury Plasma membrane?

Polymyxin B - narrow spectrum - gram negative - topical

Inhibition of protein synthesis?

Tetracyclines - broad spectrum

Inhibition of synthesis of metabolites?

Sulfa drugs - broad spectrum

Inhibition of nucleic acid transcription/translation

Rifampin - broad spectrum

Inhibitors of protein synthesis interfere with translation on the 50S portion of the 70S bacterial ribosome. Although eukaryotic cells use an 80S ribosome for protein synthesis, the antibiotic can still pose a risk for eukaryotic cells. why?

Because in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells there are 50S portions of proteins

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