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Rauterkus Study Guide


descendant or offspring, as a child, plant, or animal

law of dominance

one character appears more frequently in a population than its alternative character; that character is dominant; the character that occurs less frequently is recessive

Pea Plants

They can be grown easily and in large numbers
- Their reproduction can be manipulated
- It has different characteristics which only occur in 2 forms.


The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.


the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits

True-breeding plants

A plant, that when self-fertilized, only produces offspring with the same traits. The alleles for these type of plants are homozygous.

incomplete dominance

a condition in which a trait in an individual is intermediate between the phenotype of the individual's two parents because the dominant allele is unable to express itself fully

F1 and F2 generations

The parental generation is the first set of parents crossed.
The F1 (first filial) generation consists of all the offspring from the parents - their children.
The F2 (second filial) generation consists of the offspring from allowing the F1 individuals to interbreed - the grandchildren of the parental generation.

polygenic inheritance

occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as human eye color, skin color, or height


ability of one gene to affect an organism in multiple ways [multiple phenotypes]

Huntington's disease

It is autosomal dominant. The child of someone who has Hungtington's disease has a 50% chance of developing the disease later.

Punnett Square

A table showing all possible combinations of the alleles for a trait that can occur in the offspring

crossing over

exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations

linked genes

Genes that are located close together on the same chromosome. these genes will not undergo independent assortment during gamete formation, constituting an exception to the law of independent assortment. Crossing-over will disrupt the two genes on the same chromosome if they are far enough apart.

genetic recombination

the production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of offspring with allele combinations different from those in the parents. the term may also be used more specifically to mean the production by crossing over of eukaryotic or prokaryotic chromosomes with gene combinations different from those in the original chromosomes.


A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be ______ for that chromosome. (2n+1)


chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; _____ for that chromosome (2n-1)


The nondisjunction of all chromosomes, resulting in multiple sets of chromosomes. changes in entire sets of chromosomes (i.e. 3N, 4N, 5N, etc) No case in humans, you have changes in the number of sets of chromosomes.


consist of 3 complete sets of chromosomes(3n)


chromosomal mutation in which genes break off a section of DNA and reattach but in the opposite order


the movement of a segment of DNA from one chromosome to another, which results in a change in the position of the segment

point mutation

The addition, deletion or substitution of a single base.

DNA replication

process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission

Fredrick Griffith

discovered dna transformation- the ability of bacterial to take in information from another source and change its properties-- he did his experiments with mice and two forms of Pneumonia bacteria (one virulent and one not)


Analyzed DNA from many species. Found that [A=T] and [G=C] aka [pyrimidines=purines]. Found that ratio of (A+T)/(G+C) varied within organisms but same within a species

holds DNA together

hydrogen bonds between the base pairs hold the two strands of DNA together.

DNA synthesis

takes place during S phase of the cell cycle; the two strands of a DNA double helix separate and each serves as a template for synthesis of complementary daughter strand.


an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands

dna polymerase 1

enzyme that replaces RNA primers with DNA nucleotides

dna polymerase 2

this protein attaches after after intial replication and attaches to the daughter strand adn removes the RNA primer nucleotides, and fills with DNA nucleotides complementary to the template strand, but it can't connect fragments

single stranded binding protein

binds to and stabilizes single stranded DNA until it can be used as a template


An enzyme that connects two fragments of DNA to make a single fragment; also called DNA ligase. This enzyme is usedd during DNA replication and is also used in recombinant DNA research.


process in which mRNA is synthesized from the template DNA


process by which the sequence of bases of an mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids of a protein


a section of DNA that does not code for an amino acid and that is transcribed into RNA but is removed before it is translated


the portion of the DNA sequence in a gene that contains the sequence of amino acids in a chain and the beginning and the end of a coding sequence

RNA processing

Modification of RNA transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends.


a unit of genetic function found in bacteria and phages, consisting of a promoter, an operator, and a coordinately regulated cluster of genes whose products function in a common pathway

host range

The limited range of host cells that each type of virus can infect and parasitize.

obligate parasites

bateria that requires the presence of living tissue in order to grow

parts of a virus

Capsid, Nucleic Acid, Glycoproteins, sometimes envelopes and enzymes.

lytic cycle

a virus invades a host cell, produces new viruses, and ruptures (lyses) the host cell when releasing newly-formed viruses (polio)

lysogenic cycle

A phage replication cycle in which the viral genome becomes incorporated into the bacterial host chromosome as a prophage and does not kill the host. (lambda)


Infectious protein particles that do not have a genome


the smallest known particles that are able to replicate/virus-like particles, only single stranded RNA, no surrounding capsids


- one bacterium attaches to another using a specialized pilus and transfers a plasmid


Occurs when a prokaryote takes in DNA from its outside environment.


a virus obtains DNA from a host bacterium, then transfers it to other bacteria


a small circular, self-replicating, piece of DNA separate from the bacterial chromosome


type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm


the concentration of nerve tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of an organism (front)


an organism that possesses NO fluid filed body cavities


animal with a body cavity located entirely within the mesoderm


Bilaterally symmetrical animal which has a fluid-filled body cavity between the mesoderm and endoderm. Often have one-way digestive tract, bodies not segmented, but divided into regions with specific functions

organ systems in sponges

no; Although sponges have cells with specialized functions they do not have tissues. There is no endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm.

radial symmetry?

cnidarina, echinodermata


member of a clad of tetrapods that have an amniotic egg containing specialized membranes that protect the embryo. These include mammals and birds and other reptiles.

levels of organization



A group of organisms with radial symmetry and two body structure (polyp and medusa), and have a nerve net and stinging cells in their tentacles


(flatworms) have body organs; have a simple digestive and nervous system; have bilateral symmetry (two halves of the body mirror each other); are dorso ventrally compressed; many are parasites and can cause disease


(round worms) round smooth body; have a tube within a tube body plan, separate mouth and anus; no circulatory system; some free living, some parasite


(segmented worms) tube shaped bodies divided into sections; has a coelom, a body cavity with organs inside;simplest animals with a circulatory system; have specialized organs for digestion; earthworms the farmers friend help aerate soil and breakdown organic matter


mantle, visceral mass, head-foot, has 4 classes: Bivalvia (2 valves=clams) Gastropoda (snails and slugs...secondarily asymmetrical...torsion) Cephalapoda (squids, nautilis, octopus...etc.) Polyplacophora (chitons)


largest group reduced coelom. Exoskeleton, support weight against gravity. Jointed. Specialized respitory system Subgroups- trilobites are extinct. Chelicerates: spiders, ticks, Crustacean- crabs shrimp segmented. Insects: very adapted, flight, exoskeleton. Very important pollinators, can be pests crops, foot, pathogens


radially symmetrical marine invertebrates including e.g. starfish and sea urchins and sea cucumbers


member of the phylum Chordata; animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, pharyngeal pouches, and a muscular tail

incomplete metamorphosis

A type of development in certain insects, such as grasshoppers, in which the larvae resemble adults but are smaller and have different body proportions. The animal goes through a series of molts, each time looking more like an adult, until it reaches full size

complete metamorphosis

a type of metamorphosis where the stages are: Egg, Larva, Pupa, and Adult; organism goes into a protective case and developes there

water vascular system

in echinoderms, a radially arranged system of water-filled canals that branch into extensions called tube feet. The system provides movement and circulates water, facilitating gas exchange and waste disposal.

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