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20 terms

AP Biology- Organic Chemistry

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isomers
organic molecules that have identical molecular formulas but differing ARRANGEMENT OF ATOMS
geometric isomers
organic molecules that vary in spacial arrangement
structural isomers
organic molecules that vary in covalent arrangement
sterioisomers or entantiomers
organic molecules that vary in spacial arrangment around asymetric carbon
macromolecules
large organic molecules; also called polymer which are made of repeating units called monomers
dehydration
removal of water molecule to connect monomers together to make polymers; also called condensation reaction
hydrolysis
addition of water molecule to disassemble polymers into monomers
carbohydrates
class of organic compounds composed of monosacharrides and disaccharides
monosaccharide
single sugar molecule
disaccharide
2 monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic linkage during dehydration
polysaccharide
polymer of monosaccharides; low solubility, not sweet
cellulose
long coiled polymer of glucose
chitin
polymer of glucose, each glucose having an amino group; very resistant to wear and digestion
lipids
class of organic compounds that tends to be insoluble in water; fats and oils
triglycerides
type of lipid (fat); containing backbone of glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids; long term energy story
saturated fat
fats containing single bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon chain
unsaturated
fats containing one or more double bond(s) between carbons in the hydrocarbon chain
steroids
type of lipid; skeleton of 4 fused carbon rings; cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen
waxes
type of lipid; long-chain fatty acid bonded to long-chain alcohol; high melting point, waterproof, resistant to degradation
protiens
organic molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides; different types/functions- enzymes, structure, carriers, signaling, contraction, antibodies