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Terms in this set (223)

A. Axis forces attack North Africa
i. despite its alliance with Germany, Italy remained neutral through the beginning of the war
a. after declaring war on the Allies, Mussolini moved into France
ii. took his step into North Africa in September 1940
a. ordered his army into Egypt during the Battle of Britain
B. Britain strikes back
i. in December, the British strike back
a. by February 1941, the British had reconquered most of Egypt and taken 130,000 prisoners
ii. the Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, went in to help the Italians
a. British forces retreated to Libya
iii. by mid-January 1942, Rommel had retreated to where he started
a. by June 1942, Rommel regrouped and seized Tobruk
b. Rommel's successes earned him the nickname of "desert fox"
C. the war in the Balkans
i. Hitler had begun planning to attack the USSR in the summer of 1940
a. the Balkan countries were key to his plan
1. wanted to build bases for the attack on the USSR
2. wanted to make sure the British didn't interfere
ii. by early 1941, he persuaded Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary had joined the Axis powers
a. Yugoslavia and Greece resisted
b. in early April 1941, Hitler invaded both countries
1. Yugoslavia fell in 11 days
2. Greece surrendered in 17
D. Hitler invades the Soviet Union
i. Hitler could move ahead with Operation Barbarossa
a. early June 22, 1941, Germany started the invasion
b. Russia was not prepared
ii. the Germans pushed 500 miles into the USSR
a. the Soviets used scorched-earth as they retreated
iii. September 8, Germans put Leningrad under siege
a. early November, city was cut off from USSR
b. Hitler tried to starve out the 2.5 million inhabitants
1. nearly one million people died in Leningrad
-city refused to fall
iv. Hitler looked to Moscow
a. drive began October 2, 1941
1. by December, they had reached Moscow
b. as temperatures fell, the Germans retreated
1. Hitler said no and 500,000 Germans died