62 terms

Environmental Science Chapter 4+5

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functional, ecological, genetic, and species diversity
name the 4 major components of biodiversity
biological evolution
the process whereby earth's life changes overtime through changes in the genes of populations
natural selection
this occurs when some individuals of a population have genetically based traits that enhance their ability to survive and produce offspring with the same traits
fossils
mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, and seeds, or impressions of such items found in rocks
gene splicing (genetic engineering)
the alteration of an organism's genetic material through adding, deleting, or changing segments of its DNA
adaptive trait (adaptation)
any heritable trait that enables an individual organism to survive through natural selection and the reproduce more than other individuals under prevailing environmental conditions
differential reproduction
enables individuals with the trait to leave more offspring than other members of the population leave
biological evolution
genes mutate, individuals are selected, and populations evolve that are better adapted to survive and reproduce under existing environmental conditions
adapt, migrate,become extinct
when environment changes a population of species can
1._________
2._________
3._________
tectonic plates
huge flows of molten rock within the earth's interior break its surface into a series of gigantic solid plates
speciation
when two species arise from one
geographic isolation
occurs when different groups of the same population of species become physically isolated from one another for long periods of time
reproductive isolation
long term geo-graphic separation of members of a particular sexually reproducing species
extinction
when an entire species cease to exist
endemic species
species that are found in only one area
background extinction
when species disappear at a low rate
mass extinction
a significant rise in extinction rates above the background level
species diversity
an important characteristic of a community and the ecosystem to which it belongs
species richness
the number of different species it contains
species evenness
the relative abundance of individuals within each of those species
(ecological) niche
the role that a species plays in its ecosystem
generalist species
broad niches, they can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and often tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions (ex: raccoons)
specialist species
occupy narrow niches, they may be able to only live in one type of habitat, use one or few types of food, or tolerate a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions (ex:panda)
indicator species
species that provide early warnings of damage to a community or an ecosystem
keystone species
species that have large effect on the types and abundances of other species in an ecosystem
foundation species
species that play a major role in shaping communities by creating and enhancing their habitats in ways that benefit other species
mutations
random changes in the structure of number of DNA molecules in a cell that can be inherited by offspring
geographic isolation, reproductive isolation
two types of mechanisms of speciation
4.5 BYA
The earth is formed from the collision of countless meteors in the young solar system. The planet's surface is an ocean of molton rock
1 BYA
Rodinia, the first supercontinent is formed by the collision of all the earth's continents
300 MYA
the continents converge again to form the supercontinent pangea. Huge insects, amphibians, and reptiles begin to live on land.
250 MYA
huge volcanic eruptions cause the extinction of 95% of living species
65 MYA
an enormous meteor lands in mexico. In combination with large-scale volcanic eruptions, this event creates a huge dust cloud that causes the dinosaurs and 70% of all species on Earth to become extinct
meteors
the earth was formed 4.5 BYA by collisions of millions of _______
molton ocean
4.5 BYA the earth looked like a...
green
4.0 BYA (to 3.4 BYA) the ocean was _____ because of the increasing amount of iron in the seas
granite
3.4 BYA what new type of rock creating protoplanets began forming?
oxygen
stromatolites lived off sunlight and filled the atmosphere with
stromatolite
layered rocks that form when certain prokaryotes bind thin films of sediment together, dated as far as 3.4 bya, increased oxygen levels in the atmosphere
blue
once iron left the water, the oceans turned from green to ....
(1.9-1.5 BYA)
continental drift
The gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time. Alfred wegener developed this in the early 1900
plate
during WWII maps of the ocean floor made ____ boundaries noticeable
oceanic plates
Plates that lie primarily beneath the oceans and move downwards (escalator or conveyer belt)
continental plates
lithospheric plates including land that move upwards
snowball earth
The formation of the 1st supercontinent, Rodinia, triggered...
cambrian explosion
Occured when life forms evolved and multiplied 630-550 MYA
higher diversity, bigger size
what type of changes and adaptations have occurred with the living species at 630-550 MYA
Pangaea
after all the volcanic activity a new supercontinent formed 240 MYA when dinosaurs ruled
warm blooded
the dinosaurs were so big because they were ____ ______
180 MYA
volcanic eruptions occurred as the supercontinent Pangaea split apart starting to form today's continents. In addition, global warming experienced a 500% increase in CO2 resulting in tropical rainforests with oxygen rich environments (and food)
chicxulub
large crater in Yucatan, Mexico. Some believe it impacted the site that resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs
Africa and Europe
the collision between which continents form the Alps?
grooves
another sign of evidence of glaciers seen in NY central park are _____ on rock outcrops
iceages
it is widely believed that we are in a gap between...
coevolution
when populations of two (+) different species interact in this way over such a long period of time, changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other species. Such changes can help both sides to become more competitive or can help to avoid or reduce competition. This process is called...
interspecific competition
occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources such as food, light, or space
predation
occurs when a member of one species (the predator) feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species (the prey)
parasitsm
occurs when one organism (the parasite) feeds on the body of, or the energy used by, another organism (the host) usually by living on or in the host
mutualism
an interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food, shelter, or come other resource
commensalism
an interaction that benefits one species but has little if any effect on the other
evolutionary divergence
When one "general" species changes through evolution to produce a variety of different types of that specific species.
resource partitioning
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species