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Covering Active and Passive voice as well as Chapters 7 and 11 in the Sadlier-Oxford Level Gold Grammar for Writing Book. Mainly for SemII Smchs English 2 Honors students.

Subject Pronoun

Pronouns that function as/replace subjects in a sentence or clause.

Singular Subject Pronouns (specific)

I, you, he, she, it

Plural Subject Pronouns (Specific)

We, you, they

Subject Pronoun as a Predicate Nominative

noun or pronoun that follows a form of the verb 'be' and renames or identifies the subject

Object Pronoun

pronouns that function as/replace the direct object, indirect object, or object compliment of a sentence

Singular Object Pronouns (specific)

me, you, him, her, it

Plural Object Pronouns (specific)

Us, you, them

Use an Object Pronoun when...

the noun is an object of a preposition

Between you and "___" (me, I)

me, [object pronoun example]

The person who made all the arrangements for the trip is "______." (her, she)

she [subject pronoun example]

"Everything intercepts _____ from ourselves" -Ralph Waldo Emmerson (we, us)

us [object pronoun example]


A subject pronoun used when the pronoun functions as a subject or predicate nominative in a sentence or a clause.


A subject pronoun used when the pronoun functions as the direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition in a sentence or clause.

Who and Whom in a subordinate clause

Ignore the rest of the sentence and focus on how it functions in that clause alone.

Today, reporters write about _____ plays well without regard to race. (who/whom)


For ________ did you buy this shirt? (who/whom)


If the pronoun is both the subject/predicate nominative AND the object of a preposition, use...


Appositives in Pronoun Problems

A pronoun referring to a noun or a noun referring to a pronoun.

ex. "The best actors, Elaine and -he-, have the lead roles."

Incomplete/Elliptical Construction

A comparison that comes at the end of a sentence and starts with the word "than" or "as". Choose the pronoun form you would use if the sentence were complete.

ex. "Yan is two inches shorter -than she-"


The word a pronoun refers to/replaces

Pronouns and Antecedents must agree in

gender (m/f/neuter) and in number (sing/plur)

Use "His or Her"...

when the antecedent refers to both males and females

When a sentence is joined be "Or/Nor"...

use a singular prnoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents.

If a singular AND plural antecedent are joined by "Or/Nor"

Use a pronoun that agrees with the nearer antecedent

In Adjective clauses... [antecedents]

personal pronoun agrees with the word to which the relative pronoun refers

Did Tanish or Jessica remember _____ homework? (her/their)

her [antecedent agreement]

The judges gave the prize to the cleverest dog, ______. (him/he)

him [choosing correct pronoun]

Avoid the use of "It/this/that/which" when...

lacking a clearly stated antecedent

Prepositional Phrase

always begins with a preposition and ends with a single object (noun/pronoun) or a compound object (OB). May also include adjectives.

Adjective phrase

prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun in the sentence

Adverb phrase

prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb

Adjective phrases answer...

which one, what kind?

Adverb phrases answer...

When, how, where, to what extent?


noun or pronoun that identifies or explains the noun or pronoun that precedes it

Appositive Phrase

an appositive + all its modifiers

Nonessential [appositives]

When an appositive/appositive phrase is NOT vital to the meaning of the sentence

sometimes set off by commas
open/conclude/interrupt sentences with

Essential [appositives]

When an appositive phrase is vital to the sentence's meaning

not set off by commas


a verb form that functions as a different part of speech.

includes: gerunds, participles, and infinitives


a verb form that acts as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun.

Can come before or after the word it modifies.

Present participles End In...


Past Participles End In...

-d or -ed (can have irregular endings as well)

Participial Phrase

made up of a participle and all of its modifiers and complements. Whole phrase acts as an adjective

Absolute Phrase

A noun and a participle/participial phrase. Nonessential.


Verb form ending in -ing
functions as a noun

can be used in any way a noun is used

Gerund Phrase

A gerund and all its modifiers and complements


Verb form that is almost always preceded by the word "to"

acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb


serves as a sign/marker of an infinitive

See also: preposition

Infinitive Phrase

infinitive and all of its modifiers and complements

Infinitive, Participial or Gerund? "I only as to be free."

to be free; Infinitive

Infinitive, Participial, or Gerund? "Talking, listening, and sharing are all easier outdoors."

talking, listening, and sharing; Gerund

Infinitive, Participial, or Gerund? "The Himalayan trek, organized by professionals, was both safe and exhilarating."

organized by professionals; [past] participle

Passive Voice

"To Be" + Past Participle

Use passive voice when...

Agent is unknown or unimportant

Passive or Active? "The TARDIS is dimensionally transcendental."


Passive or Active? "Duella is defeated by Timoty J. Drake."


Change to Active: "Rose Tyler is envied by me."

I envy Rose Tyler.

Change to Active: "Someone who is hidden in time is Bruce Wayne."

Bruce Wayne hides in time.
Bruce Wayne is hidden in time.

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