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Terms in this set (55)
organisms that can produce their own food. They are capable of synthesizing complex sugars from simple molecules such as carbon dioxide and water.
Organisms that cannot make their own food. They depend on other organisms for food.
Contain carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other and to other elements. Alcohols, sugars, and oils are important types of organic compounds.
Allows an object or system to perform work or cause change; can be stored in chemicals found in food and released to the organism to do work
Process by which plants use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into simple sugars. How plants make their food and get energy.
Metabolic process by which cells break chemical bonds of nutrients, such as glucose, to obtain ATP A useable form of energy.
Requiring air or oxygen for life or survival
An organism, a cell, a process or a mechanism that can function without air.
Organelle that contains chlorophyll and is found in green plants. Converts light energy into chemical energy, which is stored as food.
a green pigment which gives plants their green color and absorbs sunlight to produce food for the plant.
the natural coloring matter of animal or plant tissue.
A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function
an organelle in eukaryotic cells that is the site of cellular respiration and generates most of the cell's ATP
parts of a plant that conduct liquids and nutrients; xylem and phloem
Chemical processes that maintain functions of living organisms
a chemical compound that is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells
the energy that is stored in the bonds between atoms
An organism that generally obtains food by feeding on other organisms or organic matter due to lack of the ability to manufacture own food from inorganic sources; a heterotroph.
An autotrophic organism capable of producing complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules through the process of photosynthesis
The conversion of one form of energy into another, or the movement of energy from one place to another.
Any of the multicellular organisms belonging to the kingdom Animalia. eukaryotes, with each of their cells having a nucleus containing DNA, Heterotrophs
multicellular eukaryotic organisms, belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Cell wall made of cellulose. Have chlorophyll and manufacture their own food through photosynthesis
A taxonomic kingdom comprising the protists- one-celled organisms
flat membrane-enclosed structures inside chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll and other pigments; they are the site for the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
the carbon-fixing reaction in photosynthesis, also known as the dark or light-independent reactions
A part of sample preparation for electron microscopes.
the distance between one peak and the next in a wave, or between one trough and the next. equals energy in photosynthesis.
light capturing reactions
The series of biochemical reactions in photosynthesis that require light energy that is captured by light-absorbing pigments to be converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH
carbon fixing reactions
Occurs in the stroma and results in the production of glucose. It is a result of an enzyme controlled sequence of reactions requiring ATP and hydrogen (NADPH2) from the light stage, and carbon dioxide.
measurement of all the exposed surfaces of a substance
a type of electromagnetic radiation, commonly referred to visible light or light which can be directly seen with the human eye
Any of various molecules that are capable of accepting one or two electrons from one molecule and donating them to another in the process of electron transport.
an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate
energy storing compounds
ATP and Lipids are examples. Compounds that store energy in cells for later use.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Hydrogen
one carbon atom bonded to two oxygen atoms; colorless, odorless gas found in our atmosphere
two oxygen atoms; colorless, tasteless, odorless, gaseous element that abounds in the atmosphere.
The measure of the amount of a sub-component (especially solute) in a solution
the breakdown of glucose through a series of biochemical reactions produces two molecules each of ATP, pyruvate, and NADH
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed.
conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols
A syrupy, water-soluble organic acid produced when milk sours or certain fruits ferment. It is also produced in the body during the anaerobic metabolism of glucose
ATP's core component; adenosine diphosphate
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent
a redox cofactor that is created during the Krebs cycle and utilized during the last part of respiration, the electron transport chain
the end product of glycolysis, which is converted into acetyl coA that enters the Krebs cycle when there is sufficient oxygen available.
Electron transport chain. A group of compounds that pass electron from one to another via redox reactions coupled with the transfer of proton across a membrane to create a proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis
inner mitochondrial matrix
the space within the inner membrane. The enzymes in here are responsible for the production of ATP
Protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane
proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions in organisms by lowering the activation energy of the reaction
dispersion of substances in a gas or liquid; the process whereby solids, liquids or gases mix as a result of the kinetic energy of their particles.
organisms with eukaryotic cells, animalia, plantae, protista and fungi
a type of cell with a nucleus enclosed by a membrane as well as membrane-enclosed organelles
organisms with prokaryotic cells, bacteria and archaea
a type of cell that is simple in structure and lacks a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; they have an outer cell wall that gives them shape
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