Chapter 11


Terms in this set (...)

Change mangment
the area of the project management that helps smooth the transition and implementation of a new product or system
the process of adapting to change and determines our ability to handle current and future change
Leavitts model
1. structure
2. people
3. Technology
these four components are interdependent, a small change can affect other areas of the organization
change theory
help analyze and understand the forces for and against a particular change
driving forces
forces that viewed as facilitating
resisting forces
changes that work against change
three concepts of lewis model
1. unfreezing
2. changing
3. refreezing
Kubler rosss model
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
Change management plan
1. Assess willingness, readiness and ability to change
2. Develop or Adopt a strategy for change
3.implemnt the change management plan and track progress
4. Evaluate experience and develop lessons learned
indiuval or a group that has the willingness and power to support the project
Change agents
the project manger and team- responsible for making change happen to achieve the goals
report directly to the spurner
The group that must change - customers or people involved iwht the final product - dynamics are the most critical to supporting change
4 strategies in change management
1. Rational - empirical approach
2. Normative-Reduction approach
3. Power Coercive approach
4. Environmental adaptive approach
Rational - empirical approach
Is based on the idea that people follow predictable patterns of behavior and will follow their own self interests
persuade that particular change will benefit them
Consisten and timely information is key
give a purpose to the change
Normative-Reduction approach
people are social beings and human behavior can be changed by changing the social norms of a group. Focus on core values and beliefs of the culture
can be time consuming and difficult
key principles:
1. capacity for change is directly related to a persons participation in a group
2. Effective change requires changing something not only about individuals values and selfies but those that make up the group culture
3. Bias and prejudice toward guarding ones closely held beliefs dimishines ability to think rationally
Power Coercive approach
attempts to gain compliance from the changed targets through power authority rewards or punishments. Objective to change the behaviors so the new behavior supports the change effort
Environmental adaptive approach
people are comfortable with the way things but are adaptive to change. Change the old ways imepdaltly, it is still important that targets of change assimilate to the change quickly to adapt
implement change management
use tracking methods like gaunt chart and such, make sure establish lines of communication
changes of communication should be both ways
evaluate and develop a lessons learned
experiences should be documented and made available to other projects, evaluation may help determine the effectiveness of players in change management strategy. Learn from experinces
can be overt: memos and meetings
covert: sabotage, foot drawing
arises when people perceive their interests and values are challenged and not being met- focus on preventing and managing and resolving
Views of conflict
1. Traditional (mid 1940s
2. Contemporary (1940s-1970s
3. Interactionist view (1970s-prestn)
Traditional view
conflit in negative light and conflict ashoudl be avoided , surprise it and eliminate as soon as possible
achieved through authorization mean and cause not adequately adressed
conflict is inevitable and natural. can be positive or negative conflict, positive conflict should be encouraged and keep negative conflict in chaeck
interactionist view
conflict is an important and necessary ingredient for performance- project manger should stir the pot to encourage conflict
Categories of conflict
1. Conficts associated with goals, objectives and specifications
2. associated with administration, management structures or underlying philosophies
3. interpersonal relationships amount people based on work ethics and style and personalizes
Managing conflict
1. Avoidance
2. Accommodation
3. Forcign
4. Compromise
5. Collaboration
May be aporopratate when you can't win and stakes are low- not useful when immediate resolution is required
trying to reach an overall goal is more important than personal interest - works in short run
using authority to remove the conflict- good when no common ground exists and emergency situations
however conflict may redevelop later
includes aspects of forcing and accommodation -useful when resolve complex problems and short run risks and rewards are modernly high- achieves only short term results
when risks and benefits are high its the best method. focus from learning from others take time and desire to work and honest communication