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Western Civilization Spielvogel 8th Edition- Chapter 15
Terms in this set (53)
King, Government with a king at the head
Noble, Government led by nobles
upper class noble birth or rank
Poor farmer or low social status who owns or rents small piece of land
Traditional village practice that was viewed as sinister and dangerous where the medieval church connect witches to the work of the devil. 100,000 tried and executed. Female dominated. Caused by religious uncertainties at time between Catholicism and Protestantism
Thirty Years' War
A war (1618-1648) between the Catholics and Protestant in the Germanic land fought between political power and leadership.
Absolute monarchy, authority is in the hands of the King who claim to rule by divine right from God.
discontent after 30 years war. Nobles and commoners. Monarchs extended their authority, Governments increased taxes to afford battles. Nobles revolted against monarch power, commoners against taxes
Edict of Nantes
Issued by Henry VIII religious freedom to Huguenots
Upper middle class English
Holy Roman Empire
Mostly German, Spain, Netherlands, Rome dominant land of the Holy Roman Empire (Catholics) during the 17th Century.
He was Louis XIII's chief minister that started the policies that strengthen the power of monarchy. He also developed spies to uncover noble plots and conspiracies to remove any threat to the royal authority.
He was Louis XIV chief minister during his minority. Continued the policies of Cardinal Richelieu and was challenged by the Fronde. Upon his death, Louis XIV became and absolute Monarch
King Louis XIV of France
He was King at age 4 and considered one of the greatest 17th Century monarchs that took over supreme power. He restructure the central-policy making machinery of the government to keep his power dominant.
nobility of France that Louis XIV handpicked
Palace of Versailles
A royal resident palace that was built during King Louis XIV's reign and was the central power system that gave power to monarchy.
replaced nobles, hand picked by Louis XIV
Jean Baptiste Colbert
controller-general of finances under Louis XIV. Created luxury goods industry , built roads and canals for trade, created the merchant Marine, raised tariffs on imported good. All these things to pay for LouisXIV lavish lifestyle and wars
The dynasty that consist of western, central, and eastern Germany and was led by Frederick William the Great Elector. King Frederick I became King in 1701 and this country became powerful during the 18th Century.
Frederick the Great
Lay foundation for Prussian state. Built and army of 40,000 (4th in size in europe)because no closed boundaries, established General war commissariat to levy taxes to support army, became agency for a civil government
Prussian aristocracy, officials of the commissariat, officers in the Prussian army
The dynasty that consist of eastern and southeastern Europe; Bohemia and parts of Hungary. Leopard I led the eastward movement against the Ottoman power and took control of Hungary.
King of the Austrian Empire 1658-1705
The dynasty that had leadership under Moscow and Ivan IV the Terrible was the first ruler to expand the territories eastward. Mostly dominated by aristocrats.
Peter the Great
He was a strong, russian, 6 foot 8 inches tall man;
ruled from 1689 to his death in 1725;
continued growth of absolution and conquest;
included more interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through technology and modernization.
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden.
Suleiman the Magnificent
1494-1566; the most distinguished sultan of the Ottoman Empire; also known as Suleiman Kanuni, "The Lawgiver". He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Ottoman Turks expansion of their territory by conquest.recognized by european rulere
Europe's leading commercial power during most of the 17th century. It was a Protestant nation without an absolute ruler.
death of Queen Elizabeth ended the tudor dynasty and the starts came into power in England. King James VI of Scotland became James I odf England
Protestants in the Anglican Church- wanted to abolish bishops in the Church of England/episcopal church
England well to do landowners, below the level of nobility. Many were Puritans
Son of James I and heir to crown. executed after the civil war for his absolute monarchy when England wanted balanced power with a Parliament.
Petition of Right
Passed by parliament before they would give the King any money: prohibited levying of taxes without parliaments consent, arbitrary imprisonment, quartering of soldiers in private houses, and declaration of Marshall law in peacetime. Had limitations on royal power.
English Civil War
Civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I; 1644-1648 . The merchants and Gentry were for the parliament. Won by the parliamentary forces and led to the creation the New Model Army led by Oliver Cromwell.
A puritan military leader during the English Civil War who led victory. Doing battle for the Lord. Destroyed both the Monarchy in England and the Parliament. Charles I executed 1649 and he dissolved the Parliament and divided the country into 11 regions each ruled by major generals. Used military force to maintain rule instead of a working government. Died 1658 and military government decided to reinstate the monarchy with Charles II, son of Charles I
Charles II and the restoration
Inclined to Catholicism. His brother James was heir to the throne and was Catholic.
Declaration of Indulgence
Declared by Charles II- it suspended laws that the parliament had put in place against Catholics and Puritans after the restoration of the Anglican church as the church of England.
because of an anti catholic sentiment in England, Parliament passed this act saying that only Anglicans could hold Military and Civil offices.
Brother of Charles II and his successor, and a devout Catholic in a Protestant England, Issued a new declaration of Indulgence which suspended all laws against Catholics and Puritans. Daughters Anne and Mary both Protestants, Son born to a Catholic mother.
The deposition of James II and the accession of his daughter Mary II and her husband, William III, prince of Orange and stadholder of the Netherlands. End of the English struggle between King and Parliament.
William and Mary
Dutch Executive, William of Orange and husband to Mary, protestant daughter of King James II of England. Raised an army and invaded England forcing James II and his wife and son out of England to France. see above. Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary afterward
English Bill of Rights 1688
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
English materialist/ political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of humans. He wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; believed only a powerful government could keep an orderly society.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
An artistic style of the seventeenth century characterized by complex forms, bold ornamentation, and contrasting elements.
Rembrandt van Rijn
Considered one of the greatest Dutch Baroque artists, his financial success was offset by tragic deaths of two wives and all four of his sons.
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
Wrote, produced, and acted in a series of comedies that satirized the religious and social world of his time. Enjoyed favor of French court and benefited from patronage of King Louis XIV.
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