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Enemas (Fundamentals of nursing)
Terms in this set (6)
Tap water enema
hypotonic (evacuates bowels before significant amounts of fluid are absorbed; should not repeat as it may lead to water toxicity.)
Normal saline enema
Isotonic (safest solution)
Hypertonic solution enema
pulls fluid out of interstitial space. The colon fills with fluid and the resultant distention promotes defecation. Patients unable to tolerate large volumes of fluid benefit most from this type of enema. These enemas are contraindicated for dehydrated patients and young infants. Fleet enema (120 to 180 ml) is the most commonly used of this type of enema.
Soapsuds are added to NS or tap water to increase colon irritability. Only pure Castile soap is safe to use in a soapsuds enema; other soaps cause serious bowel inflammation.
Oil retention enema
Lubricates the rectum and colon. The feces absorb the oil and become softer and easier to pass. To enhance action of the oil, the patient retains the enema for several hours, if possible.
ie. 1. Kayexalate is used to treat patients with dangerously high serum potassium levels. This drug contains a resin that exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions in the large intestine. 2. Neomycin antibiotic is used to reduce bacteria in the colon before bowel sugery.
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