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Terms in this set (60)
Gov't Role in Native American Society
Trade & Negotiation
-Wanting of land & resources wasn't the only reason NA & Europeans got together
Forcible Acquisition of Land
-Americans wanting land & figuring out how to get it
20th Century and on
Efforts to Re-establish Tribal Identity
-Self determination & sovereignty of tribes
The Road to "Recognition"
NA are the only...
-Direct relationship with federal gov't
ethnic/racial group in America which must be 'recognized' to receive help from the gov't
A tribe must petition to...
And must go through
the U.S. Gov't in order to be recognized
the US congress & Bureau of Indian Affairs
4 requirements to be recognized as a tribe
-Identified w/ a historic tribe on a continual basis
----Must have been a 'distinct community'
-Maintained political authority over it's people
-Cannot be a 'merging' of other tribes
-Benjamin Franklin & Patrick Henry
-----Make sure treaties getting signed
Office of Indian Affairs (BIA) went to the interior department
-Bureau of Indian Affairs
-Agency within the dept. of interior
-Worst managed agencies in US gov't
-Have no over sight & do own assessments
-5 billion missing; not kept track of
Administers all social...
assistance programs for NA
To be recognized what must a tribe do?
Formally announce it is ready to be recognized
Good Will Period
-During the depression and president devoted his time and effort to getting out of it
-NA name for this time period
-Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 18 years
-He wanted to right some of the wrongs done to NA
-Started American Indian Defense Association
American Indian Defense Association
Provides easy access to lawyers
Indian Emergency Conservation Work Program
-On reservation to get NA jobs
-If whites & NA apply for a job on the reservation then employers can give preference to NA
1950 end of
Colliers good will
Dillion Myers & responsible for
-New commissioner of Indian Affairs
-Responsible for internment camps for Japanese Americans
Dillion Myers in charge of Termination
-Withdrawal of Federal support of NA tribes
-"relocation" to urban settings; this is why now so many NA live in urban settings
----The move to the concrete prairie
Urban centers would later...
become the sources that spawned NA activist groups of the 1970's
-NA were pushed there & didn't feel that they belonged
The 1960's were a...
period of transition
President John Kennedy
-No changes to be made on tribal land without their consent
-Started public housing on reservation
-Included in War on Poverty
----included the NA
President Richard Nixon
-Self-Determination Act of 1975
----He was the first one to discuss this concept
----Signed by President Gerald Ford
-Went to witter college on football scholarship
-Had a NA coach & involved in NA issues
Self-Determination is now...
the foundation of tribal gov't in the US
-Signed the American Indian Freedom Act into Law
-Further substantiated NA rights
-Hinted at going back to the termination period
-someone talked him out of it
George H.W. Bush
-"Pattern of abuse is endemic because congress never fully rejected the paternalism of the 19th century" NAGPRA
-Put into act returning artifacts that were NA's and related to how they were treated
-Government to Government
-Visited NA country
-Gave an executive order to any federal agency that they must deal with NA on a gov't to gov't basis
George W. Bush
-"State law is supreme" FALSE
-Signed "sovereignty" memorandum upon opening of the national Indian museum in D.C.
-ACA: $500 million to Indian Health Services
-Increase in overall budged by 53% which was blocked by congress
-Nov. 2009 summit for all recognized tribes in SD
attuned to NA rights
Right to Vote for NA
-Indian Citizenship Act of 1924
-Granted 4 years after women
-Based on service of NA in WWI
-Voting procedures delegated to state
-New Mexico last to give right to vote in 1962
3 Legal Obstacles to Voting (All false assumptions)
1. Incompetent & uncivilized
2. Residents of Reservation are not part of the state
3. Don't pay state taxes
3 Cultural Obstacles to Voting
1. No interest- loss of autonomy (relationship to tribe most important)
2. Refused to be registered (they don't trust the gov't)
3. May have to relinquish ties to the tribe
5 Contemporary Obstacles to Voting
1. Dilution of the Native Voice (division of state which further divides the reservation up)
2. Voter suppression tactics
3. Restrictive ID requirements
4. Linguistic barriers
5. Poll locations
Efforts of Full Enfranchisement
-Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Get rid of Poll Tax & Obstacles
-Can't make people pay to vote: Required ID is part of that
-Legal to not have 2nd language ballot
-Needs re authorization every few years
-20K NA Soldiers Fight
-12K NA Soldiers: Choctow 1st code-talkers
-44K NA Soldiers: Navajo code-talkers (long & complicated & never broken)
----Iwo Jima: Ira Hayes a Pima Indian rose it
---------rose the flag twice
-42K NA Soldiers
-90% volunteered even though it was a draft war
NA in Military today
-Represent 2% of 18-24 year-olds in military
-----only represent 1% of 18-24 year-olds in general population
-PFC Lori Piestewa-Hopi:believed to be the 1st NA woman to die in combat for the US
Why are their so many NA in the military today?
-Gets them off the reservation
-Warrior ethos I was raised with
-My land, My Country
-Army all volunteer
-----Money, Job Training, Health Benefits
-Persuading to those in poverty
Indian Health Service
-Trust responsibility set forth in treaties to take care of native health
The U.S. has an obligation, based on...
1787 agreement between tribes & the gov't, to provide American Indians with free health care on reservations.
-Promise hasn't been kept
How this agreement works
-If a person is a member of the tribe then they can use Indian Health Care Service but they must use any personal or state insurance they have first
Federal Gov't spends...
massively underfunded---40-50% of need at its highest rate of funding
1/2 as much on health programs per Tribal resident than on programs for other American citizens
Don't get sick after June...
Federal funding has a fiscal year of October to September; often funding for IHS runs out by June of each year...therefor the saying "don't get sick after June"...
The Holistic View of Medicine
The Medicine Wheel
The Traditional Lakota symbol for medicine, health & balance-is essentially a circle with a cross in the middle.
To be healthy...
you must be in balance in all four directions, essentially living in the center of the circle
Who is eligible for Indian Health Services?
Is of Indian and/or Alaska Native descent as evidenced by ONE or more of the following
following eligibility 4
1. Is regarded by the community in which s/he lives as an Indian or Alaska Native
2. Is a member, enrolled or otherwise, or an Indian or Alaska Native Tribe or Group under Federal supervision
3. Resides on tax-exempt land or owns restricted property
4. Actively participates in tribal affairs
Is an Indian of Canadian or Mexican origin recognized by any Indian tribe or group as a member of an Indian community served by the Indian Health Program
is a non-Indian woman pregnant with an eligible Indian's child for the duration of her pregnancy through postpartum (usually 6 weeks)
Is a non-Indian memeber of an eligible Indian's household & the medical officer in charge determines that services are necessary to control a public health hazard or an acute infectious disease which constitutes a public health hazard
Following the Red Road to better health
The NA Path to Leading a Spiritual Life Every Day...the idea of holistic treatment and lifestyle...