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Terms in this set (17)
-occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells
-yields 2 ATP/ glucose
Present in the pancreatic beta-islet cells as part of the glucose sensor and is responsive to insulin in the liver
Irreversible reactions in glycolysis
Glucokinase/hexokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase
* The NADH produced in glycolysis is oxidized aerobically by the mitochondrial electron transport chain and anaerobically by cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase
Converts pyruvate to acetyl-coa.
-Stimulated by insulin and inhibited by acetyl-coA.
Citric Acid Cycle
-Takes place in mitochondrial matrix
Purpose: to oxidize acetyl-coa to CO2 and generate high energy electron carriers (NADH & FADH2) and GTP.
Electron Transport Chain
-NADH donates electrons to the chain which are passed from one complex to the next
-Reduction potentials increase down the chain until the electrons end up on oxygen, which as the highest reduction potential
-Nadh cannot cross the inner mitochondrial membrane, so it must use one of 2 shuttle mechanisms to transfer its electrons to energy carriers in the mitochondrial matrix: The glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle or the maleate -asparate shuttle
-proton motive force is the electrochemical gradient generated by the electron transport chain across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
-The intermembrane space has a higher concentration of protons then the matrix; this gradient stores energy which can be used to form ATP from ADP and an inorganic phosphate.
Summary of the energy yield of the various carbohydrate metabolism processes:
Glycolysis: 2 NADH & 2 ATP
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase: 1 NADH ( 2 NADH per molecule of glucose becuz each glucose forms 2 molecules of pyruvate)
Citric Acid Cycle: 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, & 1 GTP ( 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, & 2 GTP/ molecule of glucose)
*Each NADH: 2.5 atp; FADH2: 1.5 ATP
Summary: 2 atp from glycolysis + 2 atp(gtp) from citric acid cycle+ 25 atp from nadh +3 atp from FADH2=32 atp/molecule of glucose
-is the building of glycogen using 2 main enzymes; Glycogen synthase & branching enzyme
The breakdown of glycogen using 2 main enzymes
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Occurs in the cytoplasm of most cells, generating NADPH and sugars for biosynthesis.
-Rate limiting enzyme is Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is activated by NADP+ and inhibited by NADPH and insulin.
Lipids are transported via chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL
-Cholestrol may be obtained thru dietary sources or through synthesis in the liver
-The key enzyme in cholestrol biosynthesis is HMG-CoA reductase.
-the only fatty acid that humans can synthesize
-produced in the cytoplasm from acetyl-coa transported out of the mitochondria
Fatty Acid Oxidation
Occurs in the mitochondria following transport by the carnitine shuttle, via Beta-oxidation
Ketone bodies from during a prolonged starvation state due to excess acetyl-coa in the liver.
Protein digestion occurs primarily in the small intestine
-carbon skeletons of amino acids are used for energy, either through gluconeogenesis or ketone body formation
-Amino groups are fed into the urea cycle for excretion
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
mcat amino acids
Functional Groups, Functional groups
Carbohydrate & Protein Digestion
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