MIBO 3500 Exam 3

The first infectious disease in humans to be eradicated was _____. The current focus globally is now to eradicate _____ as the second.
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The _____ describes the role of microorganisms in the movement of carbon through marine food webs.microbial loopTrue or False: Bacteriophages are abundant in seawater and contribute to the rapid turnover of microbial populations in the marine environment.TrueConsider energy acquisition by marine microbes. Primary producers in surface waters obtain their energy from _____. However, primary producers in the deep ocean, where there is little dissolved organic carbon, obtain their energy from _____ (be specific).sunlight; lithotrophyWhat do the microbial symbionts of tube worms around hydrothermal vents provide nutritionally to their host, and how do they produce it?Microbial symbionts provide reduced carbon to the tube worms using the calvin cycle.Define biofilm and explain why infections that form biofilms are so difficult to treat.surface associated microbes in an extracellular matrix; hard to treat because this limits access by antibioticsMessenger molecules collectively called _____ signal the presence of other cells of the same species in the neighborhood as a mechanism to detect population density, a process also known as _____.autoinducers; quorum sensingList three different types of benefits of a symbiotic relationship and give an example of each.1. favorable location; lichens 2. nutrition; legumes 3. protection; Vibrio fischeri and Bobtail squidExplain the link between cattle, microbes, and greenhouse gases.Cattle have microbes living in their rumen that help them digest plant products. Cattle then burp out greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4.Consider the following epidemiological term: _____ refers to the number of cases per specific timeincidenceConsider the following epidemiological term: _____ refers to an unusually large number of cases in populationepidemicConsider the following epidemiological term: _____ refers to the total number of existing casesprevalence_____ refers to the level of indirect protection from an infectious disease as a result of the overall level of immunity within a community.Herd immunityGive an example of a non-communicable infection.tetanusEpidemiologists study disease outbreaks to identify factors such as causative agent, reservoir, and route of transmission. In case study #3 the most likely causative agents were E. coli, Salmonella enterica, and Giardia. What do these species share in common with respect to reservoir and route of transmission?These species use animal reservoirs and the fecal-oral route of transmission.Both Zika and Yellow Fever can be transmitted by mosquitos. Yellow Fever can be controlled by eliminating mosquitos, but why might differences in potential routes of transmission make this harder to accomplish with Zika?Zika is also sexually transmittedTrue or False: Tetanus toxin is a neurotoxin that causes a flaccid paralysis by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter GABA.FalseSecretory diarrhea and dysentery are generally the most severe types of diarrhea but differ in their pathogenesis. For each of the points below, indicate if it applies to secretory diarrhea, dysentery, or both. a. A toxin contributes to the pathogenesis b. The bacteria invade the tissue c. The intestinal epithelium actively secretes fluid d. Transmission is by fecal/oral routea. both b. dysentery c. secretory d. bothDiphtheria toxin is an example of an AB toxin. Immunity to diphtheria is achieved by immunizing with the chemically inactivated toxin. a. What are the functions of the A and B subunits of the toxin? b. Does the vaccine prevent infection by C. diphtheria? c. How is protection is achieved by immunization (i.e. how does the vaccine prevent the disease)?a. A subunit - active, toxic; B subunit - binds to receptor cells b. no c. antibodies prevent the toxin from attaching to the target cellE. coli O157 is found in cattle but fails to cause disease there despite production of the Shiga-like toxin. Why do you suppose that cattle carrying E. coli O157 do not develop diarrhea?Cattle don't have the proper receptors for the toxin.