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chapter 7

heat is -----, and temperature is -----.

the total energy in the random motion of molecules and atoms, a measurement of average molecular motion speed.

the ----- system is the most often used in science to measure temperature


heat capacity is

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by a given amount.

the heat capacity of water

influences the worlds climate and weather

water becomes----- as it freezes. this is ----- most substances.

less dense, different from

the heat that is lost without a change in temperature when water freezes is called

latent heat of fusion

the heat required to vaporize a substance is called

latent heat of vaporization

the tendency for water to resist temperature change is called -----. it is one of the factors in establishing -----.

thermal inertia, thermal equilibrium

low temperature and high salinity make seawater----- dense.


the ocean is stratified with ----- layers below ----- layers

denser, less dense

the surface zone accounts for approximately ----- percent of the oceans volume


the thermocline is the boundary between layers of water with differing


particles in water----- light, and water ----- light, turning it into heat.

absorb and scatter, absorbs

the ----- zone is the area of the ocean that sunlight never reaches.


the advantage of ocean-based existence over land-based existence, with respect to temperature, is that coolness of the water makes organisms live longer.

false (the advantage is that marine organisms exist in a temperature range that fluctuates less than on land.)

an ----- is an organism with an internal temperature the same as or close to the surrounding seawaters temperature.


the advantage of being an endotherm is

it keeps the metabolic rate the same

sound travels through water ------ in air

about 5 times faster than

hydrostatic pressure has an ----- effect on marine organisms. this is because the pressure inside their tissues is ----- the surrounding pressure.

insignificant, equal to

the ratio between a cells surface and its volume ----- as the diameter increases.


a high surface-to-volume ratio is important to cell function because

it affects the efficiency of nutrients, gas, and wastes passing through the cell membrane

buoyancy affects marine organisms by

minimizing the effect of their weight

the most common adaptation for overcoming water resistance is


drifting with water movement may

carry organsims to new habitats

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