Strayer Chapter 9
Terms in this set (44)
Arab nomads. They were organized into tribes and groups called clans. These clans provided security and support for a life made difficult by the extreme conditions of the desert. Their settlement is from where the Muslim Empire sprang. This was around the 600s CE and at the Arabian Peninsula.
Arabian commercial center; dominated by the Quraysh; the home of Muhammad and the future center of Islam.
A black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine. Was formerly a polytheistic shrine for some 360 deities.
The name of the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire. It was one of the two main powers in Western Asia for a period of more than 400 years from c.200-600. Was founded by Ardashir I after defeating the last Parthian (Arsacid) king, in Persia,also involving a revival of a revival of the Persian religion Zoroastrianism). Fought the Byzantines, which weakened them both.
Arabic for "God"; the supreme god of Islam.
Hebrew name for God.
Muhammad Ibn Abdullah
The Prophet of Islam (570-632 CE)
First wife of Muhammad and first to convert to Islam.
"Flight" the Migration of Muhammad from Mecca in 622 to Medina.
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
A follower of Islam, means "one who has submitted" to Allah.
A monotheistic religion that developed in Arabia in 7th century; means "submission to the will of Allah."
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
1. Faith in God (Allah) and Muhammad as his prophet; 2. Prayer five times daily; 3. Zakat or almsgiving. Tithing used to help the poor; 4. Fasting during Ramadan from sunrise to sunset; 5. Pilgrimage or Hajj to Mecca once a lifetime.
Sometimes referred to as "the sixth pillar;" struggle or a personal effort of each Muslim against greed and selfishness, a spiritual striving toward living a God-conscious life. "____ of the sword." Armed struggle against unbelief.
The practice of lending money at high interest rates. Banned in many religions including Islam.
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life. Regulated basically every aspect of life.
Equality in Islam
Islam guaranteed a principle for all followers: no Arab has superiority over a non-Arab; a white has no superiority over a non-white, etc.
Battle of Talas River
Arab victory over the Chinese in 751 CE that checked Chinese expansion to the west and enabled the conversion of Central Asia to Islam.
"Projected subjects" under Islamic rule, non-Muslims who were allowed to practice their faith as "people of the book" in return for their paying special taxes called Jizya.
A historical ethnic group that inhabited a majority of Northern Africa. in the post-Classical Era. Fought against Muslim expansion.
Rightly Guided Caliphs
Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali.. all knew Muhammad personally. Used the Qur'an and Muhammad's actions as guides to their leadership which is why they are called this.
Companion of 1st Muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful successor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpreter of dreams following Muhammad's death.
(c. 644-656) third successor of Muhammad. Launched attack against the Byzantine & Sassanid empires. Asserted right of caliph to protect economic interests of entire umma. Publicized definitive text of the Qur'an showing concern for umma's unity. From Mecca family that had resisted the Prophet until Mecca' capitulation in 630. Aroused resentment by giving family special favors. Assassinated in 656.
A Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed's son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam.
Muslim religious leaders.
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
(750-1258) Overthrew the Umayyads. Persian dynasty that ruled over the Islamic Empire. Overthrown by the Mongols.
A mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life.
Reports of sayings and actions of Muhammad, written down fairly early after his death, but took a deal of time (over several hundred years.)
Sultanate of Delhi
Islamic state in northern India established by Mahmud's successors in 1206 C.E. that began to establish the presence of Islam on the Indian subcontinent.
A 14th Century religion founded by a Hindu guru; Sikhs (means "learner") are monotheists that follow a religion that has elements of both Hinduism and Islam. Most Sikhs are found in India. Sikhism is open to new followers, so it is one looking for new members.
Central Asian nomads related to the Xiongnu peoples that pressured Han China. Set up empires throughout Eurasia. Organized as tribes that constantly fought each other. Most converted to Islam. They were primarily herders, using animal products to live (skins, meat, milk, bones, dung, etc). Not a large population because of limited water on the grasslands. Nobility was hereditary but could be lost through incompetence. Most societies sought to trade with settled people. Nobles controlled absolutely in times of war.
Empire in West Africa that grew rich and powerful through trade around 1050 located between the Niger and Senegal rivers, mostly farmers, resources gold and salt.
From 1235-1400, this was a strong empire of Western African. With its trading cities of Timbuktu and Gao, it had many mosques and universities. The Empire was ruled by two great rulers, Sundiata and Mansa Musa. They upheld a strong gold-salt trade. The fall of the empire was caused by the lack of strong rulers who could govern well.
Portion of Mali after that kingdom collapsed around 1500; this empire controlled Timbuktu.
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, this city became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
West African Monarch who ruled Songhai from 1464 to his death in 1492. Known by all as one of the great military commanders, he is remembered in some stories as a wise and tolerant ruler, and a cruel dictator in others. Also remembered for having a 400 ship river based navy that controlled the trade along the entire Niger River.
Great Mosque at Jenne
Founded in the 13th century ; reconstructed 1907. Islamic temple in Mali.
A terrifying period of interrogation regarding heresy, in which many people were tortured, convicted and killed. This was spurred by fear of witches, heretics, Jews, and Muslims and was a byproduct of the Reconquista c. 1492.
Formal colleges for higher institutions in the teaching of Islam as well as in secular subjects founded throughout the Islamic world in beginning in the 11th century.
Means someone who has memorized the Koran in its entirety and is capable of reciting it.
Muslim writer of poetry.
A mathematical phrase involving at least one variable and sometimes numbers and operation symbols. First invented in the Islamic world.
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