28 terms

Yr 9 Health 7-1 Coordinated Body Systems

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Metabolism
is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms - the total of catabolism and anabolism.
Catabolism
breaks-down of organic matter, for example to harvest energy in cellular respiration.
Anabolism
uses energy to construct components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids.
Catalyst
a substance that speeds up the rate of the reaction without being used up in the process.
Enzyme
an organic catalyst.
Substrate
the target of the enzyme
Lock and Key model
specific enzyme with the specific substrate [LE-KS]
Nutrients
include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (fats and oils), vitamins and mineral elements.
Carbohydrates
breads, potatoes rice - broken down into simple sugars (glucose)
Proteins
meat, fish, poultry and some nuts and legumes - broken down into amino acids
Lipids
fats and oils - broken down into fatty acids and glycerol
Diffusion
movement of particles of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Alveoli
Air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs
Haemoglobin
the oxygen carrying protein in red blood cells
Cardiac
of the heart
Pacemaker
SA node (sino-artrial node)
Fibrillation
spasmodic twitching of the heart muscle - very serious condition that leads to death
Defibrillator
Device to electrically shock the heart back into normal sinus rhythm
Atria
small top chambers of the heart
Ventricles
large lower chambers of the heart
Electrocardiograph
machine that records electric signals from the heart
Adrenaline
hormone increases cardiac output
Cellular respiration
chemical reaction that occurs in mitochondria that combines glucose and oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water as wastes.
Organelles
small functional sub-units within the cell that have very specific tasks
Mitochondria
organelle where cellular respiration occurs.
Ribosome
the organelle where proteins are manufactured.
Liver
largest internal organ, breaks down hormones medicines (panadol), drugs (caffeine, alcohol)
AV Node
controls electrical impulses to the ventricles