Locus of Control and Achievement Motivation

Sport Psychology 3336 Summer 2013 Texas State University - San Marcos Dr. Randall E. Osborne
STUDY
PLAY
Locus of Control
first proposed by Julian Rotter (1966)
Locus of Control
"Individuals beliefs about how much control they have over the situation they are in and what happens to them"
The distribution of both internal and external locus os control in the population is
the normal bell curve
The problems with coaching is
determining where your athlete falls on the LoC continuum and then coaching to that LoC. Don't change what you say, rather change how you say it
Motivation
Knowing an athlete's LoC is imperative to knowing how he is motived
Motivation Definition
the energy or drive that impels a person to make choices and to actively seek goals
Hunger, thirst and other bodily motivations are of less concern to personality psychologists than
the social motivations we will consider including: 1) achievement motivation 2) affiliation motivation 3) power motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy (1943): Level 1)
Physiological: food, water, shelter
Maslow's Hierarchy (1943): Level 2)
Safety: shelter, freedom from danger, security
Maslow's Hierarchy (1943): Level 3)
Belonging/Love: family, friends, part of a group
Maslow's Hierarchy (1943): Level 4)
Esteem: self esteem, esteem from others, sense of achievement
Maslow's Hierarchy (1943): Level 5)
Self-actualization: achieving personal potential, creativity or fulfillment
Motive =
of or constituting an excitement to action (e.g. causation to act)
Need =
A biological tissue deficit (e.g. survival based, physiologically based)
Drive =
An energized state to satisfy a need (e.g. find food)
Incentive =
An external stimulus that has come to have positive or negative value in motivating behavior (e.g. come to have = learned response)
Murray's Needs-Press Theory
Murray and his colleagues found evidence for "needs" which exist inside the person that motivate behavior.
Personality psychology
important in motivational research
One of the first personologists to systemically study motivation
Henry Murray (1938)
Murray's Needs-Press Theory: part 2
THey also recognized the importance of factors in the external situations that may "press" the individual into action (everyone has some level of internal needs and external pressure)
How do we measure motivation? Thematic Apperception Test
One of the most common methods is to measure motives by having subjects tell stories about ambiguous pictures and then search for motive themes in their stories
Scoring the TAT
The story receives 1 point for each of the following: 1) state goals 2) stated need for goal 3) positive & negative expectations about success/failure 4) positive & negative emotions about goal attainment and non-attainment 5) successful instrumental activities 6) unsuccessful instrumental activities 7) obstacles in the world OR obstacles within the person
Most general theories of motivation assume
that obstacles on one's life can have an impact on how motivated one is to continue striving
People engage in successful instrumental activities (ones that move them successfully toward their goals)
to the extent that they know what activities will lead them toward goals
If which activities to engage in to successfully move toward goals are not clear, or if obstacles are places in one's path that they don't know ho to avoid
one can begin to engage in unsuccessful instrumental activities (one's that make us feel like we are trying hard to succeed but that, ultimately, will never move us closer to our goals)
It is very important for the parent, the coach, he teacher, etc. to...
assist the person in identifying which behaviors are unsuccessful activities in that they are "wasting time and effort" and assist the athlete to develop more successful instrumental activities to work through or around the obstacles
In scoring these stores the assumption is made that
motives are like biological drives; they direct & energize behavior toward a particular goal & when that goal is reached, the motive decreases because it is satisfied
The Affiliation Motive: Need for affiliation =
"a motive to establish maintain, or restore positive, effective relations with another person or persons"
The TAT measure of affiliation motivation predicts
behaviors in the real world - such as sports choice
People scoring high in need for affiliation have been reported to
keep in closer contact with friends through letters, phone calls, emails and visits
People scoring high in need for affiliation pay attention to information that will facilitate social interactions
1) they master social networks more quickly 2) they accommodate to others wishes more 3) they dislike interpersonal conflict 4) they are attracted to careers that involve people 5) we would expect these individuals to be popular
The Achievement Motive
The tendency to seek excellence. The motive that energizes towards success whether measured by competitive achievements (such as winning at sports) or other accomplishments like reaching a career goal
The Achievement Motive: TAT stories are scored for achievement by looking for three kinds of achievement imagery:
1) Standard of excellence 2) unique accomplishment 3) long-term involvement
Those high in achievement motivation:
1) seek opportunities to test abilities 2) choose careers that provide success feedback 3) are particularly attracted to business careers
Those high in achievement motivation do not show higher achievement on all tasks. Why?
1) to achieve goals, we generally must risk failure. 2) In the long run, success depends on picking tasks that are difficult enough to be meaningful and challenging, but not so hard that we have no change of succeeding
In lab studies, people with a high need for achievement picked
tasks of intermediate difficulty
The Power Motive
The desire to control the means of influencing others
Power motivation has implications for
political behavior and for reaction to authority figures
Undergraduates who are high in power motive
hold offices in student government more often than those low in the motive
The ideal job for a power-motivated person provides..
opportunities to influence people. (ex. teacher, psychotherapist, journalist, clergy, business executive)
Humanistic Approaches: Rogers
1951 - "The only reality I can possibly know is the world as I perceive and experience it at this moment". Living in the moment (more devastated by loss, don't bounce back as well)
Humanistic approaches make the following assumptions about personality and studying persons:
1) basis of all human experience is interpretation 2) to understand the person, we must get inside his/her world of meaning 3) meaningful discoveries will only come from understanding the individual case (ideographic)
Carl Rogers
Most important influence on personality is the whole person. 1) individual's conscious awareness 2) freedom to choose 3) self-determination 4) experiences in life
Person-centered approach
Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes and self-directed behavior
The basic building block of Roger's theory of personalty is
"actualization"
Actualization
the inherent tendency to develop all capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance ourselves
Person-centered approach: 4 characteristics
1) organismic (natural, biological, inborn tendency) 2) active (causes us to always be up to something) 3) directional (directs behavior in purposeful ways) 4) selective (not al of our potentials are reached)
Self is
organized.
Self involves
characteristics that are important to us
How we feel about our self's characteristics related to
what we do in life
Different aspects of self: actual self
who I am right now, the reality of my situation, it is what it is
Different aspects of self: ideal self
who I must want to be, how I want to be, my vision of myself
Different aspect of self: ought self
who others feel I should be
Large discrepancies between these selves can lead to
low self-esteem and lack of motivation
Self is best understood as a
continuing process, not a fixed end-point
Self is always
undergoing gradual change
The core of who we are remains
relatively stable but who we are in situations changes
The parts of ME:
1) good me (what I am good at and I care) 2) bad me (what I am bad at and I care and want to improve) 3) Not me (good or bad.. i just don't care)
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