42 terms

Con Bio Quiz 10

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Ecological resilience
A natural ability to recover after disturbance
Ecological restoration
Altering a site to reestablish an indigenous ecosystem
Restoration ecology
The scientific study of resorted populations, communities, and ecosystems
Compensatory mitigation/ biodiversity offsets
When a new site is created or rehabilitated in compensation for a site damaged or destroyed elsewhere
Reference sites
Control site that provides goals for restoration in terms of species composition, community structure, and ecosystem processes; act as comparative sites
Passive restoration
Letting an ecosystem recover on its own
Adaptive restoration
Using monitoring data to adjust management plans to achieve restoration goals
Secondary invasion
When the removal of an invasive species is followed by an invasion by a different species
Reconciliation ecology
The science of developing urban places in which people and biodiversity can coexist
Rewilding
Returning species, in particular large mammals to landscape, to approximate their natural condition prior to human impact; reintroduction of top carnivores (wolves in Yellowstone)
Bioremediation
The use of an organism to clean up pollutants, such as bacteria that break down the oil in an oil spill or wetland plants that take up agricultural runoff to clean the water
Biocontrol
The use of one type of organism, such as an insect, to manage another, undesirable, species, such as an invasive plant
Novel ecosystems
Ecosystems in which there is a mixture of native and nonnative species coexisting in a community unlike the original or reference site
Cultural eutrophication
Algal blooms and associated impacts caused by excess mineral nutrients released into the water from human activity
Nonpoint source pollution
Pollution coming from a general area rather than a specific site
Biocultural restoration
Restoring lost ecological knowledge to people to give them an appreciation of the natural world
Economic development
Economic activity focused on improvements in efficiency and organization but not necessarily on increases in resource consumption
Economic growth
Economic activity characterized by increases in the amount of resources used and in the amount of goods and services produced
Land trusts
Conservation organizations that protect and manage land; private, non-profit corporations established to protect land and natural resources
Limited development/ Conservation development
Compromise involving a landowner, a property developer, and a conservation organization that combines some development with protection of the remaining land
Conservation leasing
Providing payments to private landowners who actively manage their land for biodiversity protection
Conservation banking
A system involving developers paying landowners for the preservation of an endangered species or protected habitat type (or even restoration of a degraded habitat) to compensate for a species or habitat that is destroyed elsewhere
Conservation concessions
Methods of protecting land whereby a conservation organization pays a government or other landowner to preserve habitat rather than allow an extractive industry to damage the habitat
Earth Summit/ Rio Summit
An international conference held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro that resulted in new environmental agreements
Aichi Biodiversity Targets
A list of goals to achieve sustainability and the protection of biodiversity developed by the Convention on Biological Diversity
Paris Accord
An agreement made in Paris in 2015 by 195 nations to lower greenhouse gas emissions with the goal of preventing atmospheric temperatures from increasing more than 2 degrees Celsius
World Summit on Sustainable Development
Held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002, this gathering emphasized achieving the social and economic goals of sustainability
UN Conference on Sustainable Development
Held in 2012, this conference linked biodiversity conservation to sustainable development and controlling climate change, and emphasized the need for market-based solutions
Ramsar Convention of Wetlands
A treaty that promotes the protection of wetlands of international importance
World Heritage Convention (WHC)/Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage
A treaty that protects cultural and natural areas of international significance
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
A treaty that obligates countries to protect the biodiversity within their borders, and gives them the right to receive economic benefits from the use of that biodiversity
World Bank
International bank established to support economic development in developing countries
Global Environment Facility (GEF)
A large international program involved in funding conservation activities in developing countries
National Environment Fund (NEF)
A trust fund or foundation that uses its annual income to support conservation activities
Debt-for-nature swaps
Agreements in which a developing country agrees to fund additional conservation activities in exchange for a conservation organization canceling some of its discounted debt
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)
Program using financial incentives to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from deforestation
What are the four main approaches that define outcomes considering restoration of biological communities and ecosystems?
1. No action, 2. Rehabilitation, 3. Partial restoration, 4. Complete restoration
What are some of the major communities that restoration projects have focused on?
Wetlands, aquatic systems (rivers, lakes), prairies and farmlands, and tropical dry forest in Costa Rica
The best long-term strategy remains to be what?
Protecting and managing biological communities where they are found naturally
International cooperation to protect biodiversity is an absolute requirement for what reasons?
Species migrate across international borders, international trade in biological products is commonplace, biodiversity provides internationally important benefits, many environmental pollution problems that threaten ecosystems are international in scope
How many international meetings have there been that consider environmental issues in the context of sustainable development?
6
What were the four major documents signed at the Earth/ Rio Summit?
The Rio Declaration, The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and Agenda 21