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200 terms

Nutrition 101 test 1

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PLAY
A false story has circulated for several years on the Internet about the chickens used by a popular national fried chicken chain. It claims that the chickens used by the company have been genetically modified to have no heads, beaks, or feet and are kept alive with feeding tubes. This is an example of:
an advertorial.
an urban legend.
an infomercial.
anecdotal evidence.
an urban legend
A food provides 8 grams of fat and 300 total calories. What is the percentage of calories as fat in this product?
24%
30%
48%
52%
24%
A person with heart disease is told he has to make some changes in his diet and lifestyle practices. He states "I know that I should make changes because my father and brother both died of heart attacks. But, I really like to have my big steaks for dinner." He is in what stage of behavior change?
precontemplation
contemplation
action
maintenance
contemplation
A popular star has a half-hour television show describing a new dietary supplement that she claims has made her much healthier. During the show she describes how she has seen improvement in her skin, hair, and eyesight without going to the doctor. This is an example of:
an advertorial.
an urban legend.
an infomercial.
anecdotal evidence.
an infomercial
A woman who is trying to lose weight will be more motivated if she considers:
trying some recipes from a new cookbook.
the reward of being able to fit into her favorite clothes again.
asking her husband to cook their meals.
the confidence she has from setting goals for changing eating habits.
the reward of being able to fit into her favorite clothes again
All of the following nutrients are organic except:
minerals.
fat.
vitamins.
Carbohydrates
minerals
Carbohydrate and protein each contain _____ calories in a gram.
2
4
7
9
4
Cultural traditions regarding food are static and inflexible.
True
False
false
Enriched and fortified foods are not necessarily more nutritious than whole basic foods.
True
False
True
Food scientists measure food energy in:
calories.
kilograms.
grams.
units of weight.
calories
Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called _____ foods.
processed
partitioned
natural
enriched
processed
Good food choices can reduce the chance of developing chronic diseases.
True
False
True
Harry has a monotonous diet and eats the same foods every day. You try to convince him to eat a variety of foods because:
some less well-known nutrients and some nonnutrient food components could be important to health.
a monotonous diet may deliver large amounts of unwanted minerals.
a monotonous diet may lead to decreased appetite and severe weight loss.
large amounts of the same foods may lead to an excess of certain vitamins.
some less well-known nutrients and some nonnutrient food components could be important to health.
Having cake and ice cream as part of a birthday celebration is an example of which food choice factor?
economy
positive association
social pressure
values
positive association
How many calories are in a food that contains 20 grams of carbohydrate, 8 grams protein, and 5 grams of fat?
157
232
258
378
157
In nutrition, the word essential means:
necessary for good health and proper functioning of the body.
a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.
that the body can manufacture the nutrient from raw materials.
compounds the body can make for itself.
a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.
Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.
True
False
True
Many factors influence food choices by individuals. Among these are:
cultural traditions, which are inflexible and cannot be changed.
the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation.
the emotional comfort provided by foods with high nutrient content.
expense, since foods that cost more are always more nutritious.
the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation.
Most foods that are high in calcium are poor sources of iron. This statement illustrates the importance of the characteristic of a nutritious diet known as:
adequacy.
variety.
moderation.
Balance
balance
Nutraceutical is a term that has no legal definition.
True
False
True
Of the 10 leading causes of death in the United States, _____ are related to nutrition, and 1 to alcohol consumption.
2
3
4
5
4
One gram of alcohol is equal to _____ calories.
two
four
seven
nine
seven
One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy. This principle of diet planning is called:
variety.
balance.
moderation.
adequacy.
adequacy
Phytochemicals found in foods are important because:
they increase the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.
they are considered to be essential nutrients.
they are a new category of vitamins.
they decrease the risk of develping certain diseases when they are eaten
Rice is an example of a _____ food used in Southeast Asia.
fortified
natural
staple
processed
staple
The abundance of types of foods today has made it:
more difficult to plan a nutritious diet.
much easier to select nutritious foods for a diet.
healthier to combine nutraceuticals for disease prevention.
easier to balance a deficient diet with functional foods.
more difficult to plan a nutritious diet
The compound that gives hot peppers their burning taste is called a:
toxin.
nutrient.
supplement.
phytochemical.
phytochemical
The development of chronic diseases has a connection to poor diet and:
can be completely prevented by eating a good diet.
will not be affected by lifestyle choices.
is not affected by genetics.
can be reduced by food choices along with lifestyle choices.
can be reduced by food choices along with lifestyle choices
The energy-yielding nutrients include:
protein.
fat.
vitamins.
a and b
a and c
a and b
The human genome is 99.9% the same in all people.
True
False
true
The major key to evaluating a food is to:
explore how it can help prevent an illness.
determine how you use it within your total diet over time.
judge how popular it is among consumers.
study the role it plays in the body.
determine how you use it within your total diet over time
The major role in the body that all vitamins and minerals have is:
to act as regulators in body processes.
to serve as parts of body structure.
to provide energy.
to prevent chronic disease.
to act as regulators in body processes
The most difficult obstacle to changing behavior is:
competence, because it is difficult to obtain new knowledge.
motivation, because it is difficult to change.
confidence, because it cannot be improved.
self-efficacy, because people don't believe in their ability to take action.
motivation, because it is difficult to obtain new knowledge
The most energy-rich of the nutrients is:
carbohydrate.
fat.
protein.
water.
fat
The source of valid nutrition information is:
newspaper articles.
TV programs.
scientific journals.
health magazines.
scientific journals
The term _"____" has no legal definition but is often used on food labels to imply wholesomeness.
medical
natural
processed
enriched
natural
Three ounces of beef stew offers about the same amount of iron as three ounces of water-packed tuna, but the beef contains over 300 calories while the tuna contains about 100 calories. This is an example of:
balance.
nutrient density.
dietary variety.
moderation.
nutrient density
When considering the effect of genetics and nutrition on chronic disease development in individuals:
we need to understand that all individuals have the same genetic makeup.
sound nutrition practices have the greatest influence on prevention of all chronic diseases.
our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.
scientists have recently been able to identify all the genetic connections to chronic disease
our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.
When evaluating the effectiveness of the nutrition and physical activity objectives in Healthy People 2010, public health officials have found that:
we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke.
heart disease is no longer the leading cause of death among adults.
physical activity has an influence on health that is completely separate from nutrition.
the numbers of overweight individuals is being effectively reduced.
we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke
When making food choices, the best types of foods to include in your diet are:
natural foods, because they are the most nutritious and complete.
fast foods, because they are the most readily available.
whole foods, because they provide the basis of a nutritious diet.
processed foods, because they are fortified with all missing nutrients.
whoe foods, because the provide the basis of a nutritious diet
Which of the following conditions is the most nutrition responsive?
hypertension
diabetes
iron-deficiency anemia
sickle-cell anemia
iron-deficiency anemia
Which of the following foods offers the most nutrients per calorie?
potatoes
corn
green peas
carrots
carrots
Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol?
It is a nutrient.
It contributes calories.
It interferes with repair of body tissues.
a and b
b and c
b and c
Which of the following nutrients yields energy, but also provides materials that form structures and working parts of body tissues?
carbohydrates
protein
fats
vitamins
protein
Which of the following terms was coined in an attempt to identify foods that might lend protection against chronic diseases by way of the nutrients or nonnutrients they contain?
natural foods
organic foods
basic foods
functional foods
functional foods
You can tell a claim about nutrition is suspect if it bears the following characteristics:
it is being made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims.
the evidence used to support the claim is from a university laboratory.
it appears in a scientific journal that is peer-reviewed.
it is being made by a public health nutritionist.
it is beibd made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims
You purchase a food product that is enriched. This means that:
the product is superior to similar products.
the product is low in calories and high in nutrients.
the product could be either nutritious or not nutritious.
a and b
the product could be either nutritious or not nutritious
You see a new finding about nutrition reported in your local newspaper. Based on this information you would:
decide that the information is factual.
contribute it to media sensationalism.
feel confident about changing your diet accordingly.
wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists.
wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists
Your family always has rice available at every meal, just as it has been for every generation. This is an example of _____ of food selection.
cultural tradition
emotional comfort
availability
social pressure
cultural tradition
Your food intake on a daily basis affects your health because:
you must eat adequate amounts of every nutrient daily to stay healthy.
improper balance of nutrients over time can lead to chronic diseases in the future.
malnutrition is a result of not eating enough foods.
overeating will result in very quickly developing a chronic disease.
improper balance of nutrients over time can lead to chronic diseases in the future
Timing of meals is important because the digestive tract is unable to digest food at certain times.
True
False
false
What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?
the microvilli absorb nutrients into the lymphatic system
the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them
the villi block toxins from absorption into the blood
the villi complete the breakdown of foods into nutrients
the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them
When the colon is not functioning properly, complications that may arise include:
constipation, which can best be relieved with laxatives used on a regular basis.
diarrhea, which can be corrected by colonic irrigation.
indigested foods from improper combinations that cannot be digested completely.
irritable bowel syndrome caused by stress and lack of physical activity.
irritable bowel syndrome caused by stress and lack of physical activity
When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:
lymph.
insulin.
antibodies.
glucagon.
insulin
Which of the following alert(s) your conscious mind to the sensation of hunger?
brain
hormones
taste buds
a and b
b and c
a and b
Which of the following is not one of the major storage systems which store and release nutrients to meet the cells' needs between meals?
liver
muscles
fat cells
pancreas
pancreas
Which of the following organs makes almost all of the body's alcohol-processing machinery?
stomach
pancreas
liver
spleen
liver
Which of the following should be consumed at intervals throughout the day?
vitamin-rich foods
fat-containing foods
mineral-rich foods
carbohydrate-containing foods
carbohydrate-containing foods
Without food to replenish it, the liver's glycogen supply can be depleted within:
1 - 3 hours.
3 - 6 hours.
4 - 8 hours.
6 - 9 hours.
3-6 hours
You are concerned about a classmate who is binge drinking on a regular basis and want to let him know about long-term complications that may rise from that practice. What would you tell him to try to convince him to cut back on drinking?
it is better to drink beer and wine because they are milder than mixed drinks
alcohol slows down fat metabolism so you need to eat more fat in your diet
excessive alcohol intake can lead to deterioration of skeletal and heart muscle
it is better to drink on an empty stomach so the body can metabolize it quickly
excessive alcohol intake can lead to deterioration of skeletal and heart muscle
You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send _____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.
bile
bicarbonate
hydrochloric acid
mucus
bile
A person can eat when hunger is absent because:
the hypothalamus monitors the availability of nutrients.
the conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals.
the digestive tract sends messages to the hypothalamus.
the stomach intensifies its contractions and creates hunger pangs
the conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals
A person in an emergency situation is unable to eat for several weeks. Which of the following would provide the energy that this person would need to survive?
fat
liver glycogen
bones
muscle glycogen
fat
As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the:
esophagus because of the slow movement of peristalsis on chewed food.
stomach because of the extensive breakdown of carbohydrates and fats.
small intestine because of the time it takes to absorb through the villi.
large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water.
large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water
As the villi in the small intestine are exposed to nutrients:
they will absorb the greatest percentage possible of every nutrient into the blood.
they will deliver minerals into the lymph system for transport.
they will absorb partially digested fiber into the blood for delivery to the colon.
they will preferentially absorb a greater percentage of deficient nutrients.
the will preferentially absorb a greater percentage of deficient nutrients
Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of:
chewing to allow some nutrients to be absorbed into the body through the tongue.
peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract.
the stomach to gently release foods into the small intestine.
the small intestine to absorb water and create the paste that forms feces.
peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract
Excess nutrients are stored in various body tissues for future use. An example of this would be:
fat, which is stored in small amounts in cells and which needs frequent replenishing.
glycogen, which has unlimited storage capacity in the muscles.
vitamins, which all can be stored in unlimited amounts in muscle tissue.
calcium, which is stored in reserves in the skeletal system.
calcium, which is stored in reserves in the skeletal system
In cases of severe undernutrition, the small intestine will react by:
shrinking to a much smaller surface.
expanding to a much larger surface.
increasing intestinal muscle activity.
increasing the amount of nutrients absorbed.
shrinking to a much smaller surface
Most people have aversions to _____ tastes.
sweet
salty
fatty
bitter
bitter
Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by:
transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
transport to the heart which then delivers them to the individual cells in the body.
transport to the kidneys which send them to the cells in the body.
transport through the lymph system to the heart for distribution.
transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
Some nutrients are stored in the body in much smaller quantities than others are.
True
False
true
Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.
True
False
true
The digestive tract needs _____, which provides the bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work.
energy
fiber
nutrients
water
fiber
The liver converts excess energy-containing nutrients into:
glycogen.
protein.
fat.
a and b
a and c
a and c
The primary organ of digestion and absorption is the:
mouth.
stomach.
small intestine.
large intestine.
small intestine
The stomach's main function is the digestion of what nutrient?
protein
carbohydrate
fat
fiber
protein
The Daily Values reflect the needs of an "average person" consuming between _____ calories a day.
1,500 and 2,000
2,000 and 2,500
2,500 and 3,000
3,000 and 3,500
2,000 and 2,500
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are appropriately used for all of the following except:
estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems.
estimating the adequacy of an individual's nutrient intake.
planning diets for population groups like military personnel.
ensuring that minimum nutrient requirements are met.
estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems
The Nutrition Facts Panel on a food label lists the following information for amounts per serving: 111 calories; 23 calories from fat. What percentage of the calories are provided by fat?
11%
19%
21%
32%
21%
The bottom portion of the Nutrition Facts panel on a food package:
is identical on every label.
lists the Daily Values standards.
conveys information specific to the food inside the package.
a and b
b and c
a and b
When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide each day, you need to remember that:
the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender.
the recommended amounts are the same for all food groups to provide nutritional adequacy.
you can eat the same foods every day, as long as you are selecting from all food groups.
you should not eat more than the recommended amounts from each food group.
the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender
When planning a healthful diet, you should remember that:
the more physically active you are, the lower your discretionary calorie allowance.
the more sedentary you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance.
you do not need to worry about discretionary calories if you are physically active.
the more physically active you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance.
the more physically active you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance
Which of the following foods do not fit into any of the five major food groups in the USDA Food Guide?
yogurt, legumes, and cheese
peaches, peanuts, and ready-to-eat cereal
margarine, gravy, and jelly
eggs, frozen yogurt, and avocados
margarine, gravy, and jelly
Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals?
whole foods
supplements
herbal remedies
organic foods
whole foods
Which of the following people would not be covered by the DRI, based on assumptions made by the DRI committee?
Harry, a 35-year-old healthy businessman
Cindy, a 21-year-old college athlete
Robert, a 20 year old with cystic fibrosis
Joann, a 35-year-old female vegetarian
robert, a 20 yr old with cystic fibrosis
Which vegetable subgroup of the USDA Food Guide is not correctly matched with its target nutrient(s)?
orange and deep yellow vegetables - vitamin D
starchy vegetables - carbohydrate
dark green vegetables - folate
legumes - iron and protein
orange and deep yellow vegetables - vitamin D
A person has had the following vegetables over the past week: carrots, pinto beans, corn, cauliflower, coleslaw, and mashed potatoes. Which of the following vegetables should he eat to be sure he has had representation of each of the subgroups for the week?
broccoli
sweet potatoes
green peas
mushrooms
broccoli
All of the following are characteristics of exchange systems except:
they pay special attention to calories.
they give a sense of which foods are similar to each other.
they sort foods by their carbohydrate contents only.
they highlight the fact that most foods provide more than just one energy nutrient.
they sort foods by their carbohydrate contents only
An important role of the exchange system of categorizing foods is to:
provide food lists for people who want an exact match on all nutrients in a food category.
provide groupings of similar foods by their carbohydrate, fat, protein, and calorie content.
calculate the exact number of calories eaten in a person's diet.
have foods available from one group to substitute for foods not liked in another group.
provide groupings of similar foods by their carbohydrate, fat, protein, and calorie content.
Any food providing 10% or more of the Daily Value for a nutrient is considered to be a _____ source of the nutrient.
poor
reliable
good
excellent
good
Food group plans primarily dictate:
particular foods to choose each day.
appropriate portion sizes for foods.
estimates of the amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat in foods.
numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day.
numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day
Foods that provide zero discretionary calories:
are naturally low in fat and have no added fats or sugars.
should be avoided when trying to lose weight.
are more processed foods.
are not as nutrient dense.
are naturally low in fat and have no added fats or sugars
If a nutrient does not have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level, this means that:
it is safe to consume in any amount.
insufficient data exist to establish a value.
no caution is required when consuming supplements of that nutrient.
it is safe when supplemental levels are added to foods.
insufficient data exist to establish a value
If vitamin C has been added to cranberry juice, the label must include:
nutrient information.
an ingredients list.
a health claim.
a and b
b and c
a and b
In exchange lists, high-fat cheese is included as a member of the _____ list.
milk
vegetable
high-fat meat
fat
high-fat meat
In the exchange lists, vegetables are categorized according to:
carbohydrate content.
fat content.
protein content.
sodium content.
carbohydrate content
On average, one should try to get 100% of the DRI for every nutrient to ensure an adequate intake over time.
True
False
true
Tea and certain spices are not included in the USDA Food Guide. This means that you should consider which of the following when deciding whether to include them in your diet?
they contain no calories so you should not eat them
they contain phytochemicals for health so you should consider using them
they interfere with nutrients in foods so you should not eat them
they have been excluded from the Food Guide because they are toxic
they contain phytochemicals for health so you should consider using them
The Dietary Guidelines encourage Americans to consume less:
refined grains.
fruits.
added sugars.
vegetables.
a and c
a and c
The DRI Committee recommended a diet that contains _____% of its calories from carbohydrate.
10-35
20-35
45-65
50-70
45-65
A desirable intake of dietary fiber is _____ grams daily, according to the American Dietetic Association.
10 - 26
20 - 35
27 - 40
40 - 55
20-35
A person with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes has just been advised that he should begin a 2100-calorie diet with 45% of the energy coming from carbohydrate. How many grams of carbohydrate would that be?
105
135
236
337
236
Approximately _____ grams a day of carbohydrate are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average-size person.
50
75
100
130
130
Carbohydrates are essential to provide energy for the body because:
the glucose that is produced from them is vital to fuel most of the body's cells.
proteins are available only to provide building block materials for tissues.
ketone bodies produced from proteins do not provide adequate energy for cells.
fats are not able to provide any energy to the cells.
the glucose that is produced form them is vital to fuel most of the body's cells
Characteristics of type 2 diabetes include all of the following except:
insulin resistance of the body's cells.
blood glucose levels that rise too high.
a pancreas that makes too little or no insulin.
blood insulin levels that rise too high.
a pancreas that makes too little or no insulin
Complex carbohydrates:
include both single sugar units and linked pairs of sugar units.
are known as the monosaccharides and disaccharides.
are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber.
a and b
b and c
are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber
Fiber has been recommended in the diet for its possible benefits in reducing heart disease by lowering blood cholesterol. How is fiber thought to play its role in lowering blood cholesterol?
insoluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the large intestine and is excreted in feces
viscous fiber binds with bile in the intestine and is excreted in feces
soluble fiber binds with cholesterol in the blood and is excreted through the liver
insoluble fiber converts to bile in the large intestine and binds with cholesterol
viscous fiber binds with bile in the intesting and is excreted in feces
Hormones play an important role in regulating blood glucose levels, with:
insulin releasing glycogen from muscles for body cells to use for energy.
glucagon decreasing the removal of glucose from the blood during stress.
epinephrine breaking down liver glycogen to provide glucose in times of danger.
insulin transporting extra glucose to fat cells for storage.
epinephrine breaking down liver glycogen to provide glucose in times of danger
How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?
White bread is just as nutritious because it has been enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, and folate.
Whole-wheat bread is preferable because it is likely to contain several nutrients not added to white bread.
Whole-wheat bread is higher in fiber content than white bread.
a and b
b and c
b and c
Lactose intolerance can cause nutritional complications because:
the person affected will not be able to consume adequate carbohydrate in their diet.
inadequate calcium intake from avoiding dairy products can affect bone development.
it happens most frequently in young children who then will consume inadequate protein.
it results in the inability to eat any types or amounts of dairy products.
inadequate calcium intake from avoding dairy products can affect bone development
One of the main reasons that obesity contributes to type 2 diabetes is because:
inflammation in the tissues triggers them to resist insulin.
excess glucose builds up in the tissues.
increased blood lipids result in more fat available for storage.
abnormally high levels of insulin remove too much glucose from the blood.
inflammation in the tissues triggers them to resist insulin
Potential harmful effects of too much fiber include:
dehydration.
limited absorption of iron.
extreme weight loss.
a and b
b and c
a and b
Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called:
protein-sparing products.
glycogen bodies.
ketone bodies.
glucagon products.
ketone bodies
Sugar has been implicated by many people in some major health problems; however, the only effect of sugar on health that has been shown scientifically is that:
sugar consumed in large amounts leads to obesity, even when calorie level, physical activity, and fat intake remain the same as in people who do not consume the same amount of sugar.
eating high levels of concentrated sugar puts a strain on the pancreas, leading to diabetes.
children who eat large amounts of sugar will develop symptoms of hyperactivity.
in developing countries, added sugar is providing more energy to the diet while people are decreasing their physical activity.
in developing countries, added sugar is providing more energy to the diet while people are decreasing their physical activity.
The best way to lose fat, maintain lean body tissues, and maintain the health of the body is to:
control calories from fat.
control total calories.
control calories from carbohydrate.
control calories from protein.
control total calories
The form of starch that is most easily digested in the body is:
cooked beans.
oatmeal.
barley.
white flour.
white flour
When considering the health concerns of diabetes it is important to remember that:
it only affects a small number of people compared to other chronic diseases.
if poorly controlled it can damage major organs and tissues in the body.
type 2 diabetes is never seen in children so is not of concern for them.
type 1 diabetes can be prevented by controlling sugar intake in the diet.
if poorly controlled it can damage major organs and tissues in the body
Which of the following is characteristic of type 1 diabetes?
the person's immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas
the pancreas no longer produces insulin
the person is usually overweight
a and b
b and c
a and b
Which of the following is the most-used monosaccharide inside the body?
fructose
lactose
glucose
galactose
glucose
Which of the following terms would you look for on a bread label to choose the most nutritious product?
wheat flour
whole grain
unbleached flour
brown bread
whole grain
A 26-year-old male works in a high-stress sales position. He has a family history of premature heart disease and he is physically inactive. How many risk factors for CVD does he have?
1
2
3
4
3
About 95% of the lipids in foods and in the human body are:
triglycerides.
phospholipids.
sterols.
cholesterol.
triglycerides
All of the following are found mainly in foods that contain fat except:
vitamin A.
vitamin C.
vitamin D.
vitamin K.
vitamin C
All of the following problems are associated with low-fat diets except:
they are difficult to maintain over time.
they are not necessarily low-calorie diets.
they may exclude nutritious foods.
they result in nutrient deficiencies.
the result in nutrient deficiencies
Approximately what percent calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 99 calories from fat?
44%
50%
67%
72%
50%
As you are deciding how much fat to include in your meal, which aspects of its contribution in foods would you want to consider?
foods containing fat are much bulkier and heavier than low-fat foods
fat in foods will create a strong odor that may reduce your appetite
when fat is eaten with phytochemicals it will block their absorption
fat in your meal will contribute to satiety, the feeling of fullness after a meal
fat in your meal will contribute to satiety, the feeling of fullness after a meal
Cholesterol is important in nutrition because:
your body is not able to produce it so cholesterol is considered an essential nutrient.
it is necessary for the production of the emulsifier bile by the liver.
it is found in most foods we consume, though its main source is plants.
it can contribute to weight loss when too much is eaten.
it is necessary for the production of the emulsifier bile by the liver
Cholesterol is the best known of the:
phospholipids.
lipids.
sterols.
triglycerides.
sterols
Cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to:
prevent them from becoming rancid.
retard the oxidation process.
prevent them from losing fat-soluble vitamins.
a and b
a and c
a and b
Current recommendations for heart health are to reduce intake of trans fats in the diet. How would this be best accomplished?
simply eliminate all foods with trans fats from your diet because they are not currently found in many foods
read labels to select foods that say "trans-fat free" because all are healthier food selections
consume as little trans fat as possible because of the harmful health effects that are similar to saturated fats
use fat replacers such as olestra, which provide the same nutrient content as regular fats without being saturated
consume as little trans fat as possible because of the harmful health effects that are similar to saturated fats
DRI recommendations concerning intakes of fats include:
consume up to 35% of calories as fat.
keep saturated fat intake as low as possible.
keep cholesterol intake at 100 mg.
a and b
b and c
a and b
EPA and DHA are:
not important in nutrition.
essential fatty acids.
found in the oils of fish.
omega-6 fatty acids.
found in the oils of fish
Fatty acids may differ from one another:
in chain length.
in degree of saturation.
in number of calories.
a and b
b and c
a and b
If the fat in a container is solid at room temperature, what type of fat is it?
polyunsaturated fat
monounsaturated fat
saturated fat
short-chain fatty acids
saturated fate
Nutrient characteristics of nuts that may lower heart disease risk include:
they are high in dietary fiber.
they contain vitamin E, an antioxidant.
they are low in total fat.
a and b
a and c
a and b
Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much higher in fats than lean beef.
True
False
true
The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid classifies legumes as:
part of the meats group.
part of the poultry, eggs, and cheese group.
part of the "eat less often" group.
part of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains group.
part of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains group
The best way to increase consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is to:
increase intake of seed oils.
consume 2 fish meals per week.
limit intake of polyunsaturated fats.
take fish oil in supplements.
consume 2 fish meals per week
The current advice on following a diet to prevent heart disease is to:
reduce the total fat content to 20% so as to result in a reduction of total calorie intake.
switch to butter on your foods because margarine is higher in trans fats.
substitute olive oil for saturated and trans fat in spreads and sauces.
use the Mediterranean diet recommendations because it is a low-fat diet.
substitute olive oil for saturated and trans fat in spreads and sauces
The lipoproteins LDL and HDL are important in heart disease risk because of the following properties and actions:
LDL are much lighter in weight because they do not contain as much cholesterol to take to the cells.
HDL are affected by the amount of cholesterol we eat in our diet.
LDL are beneficial because they transport cholesterol to the tissues and away from blood.
HDL play an important role in scavenging cholesterol from the tissues for disposal.
HDL play an important role in scavenging cholesterol from the tissues for disposal
The major storage form of fats in our body is:
triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol.
fatty acids, which are made up of trans fats and bile.
cholesterol, which is stored in the blood.
lecithin, which is stored in the liver.
triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol
The most heart-healthy margarines are those:
which list liquid oil as the first ingredient.
which are the most resistant to rancidity.
which have received the most hydrogenation.
which are the most expensive products.
which list liquid oil as the first ingredient
The role of bile in fat digestion is to:
digest fats in the stomach.
emulsify fats in the small intestine.
transport fats through the circulatory system.
split fats into smaller components.
emulsify fats in the small intestine
To protect yourself from consuming too much _____, you would limit your consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.
lead
arsenic
iodine
mercury
mercury
Triglycerides consist of:
three fatty acids.
trans fatty acids.
glycerol.
a and b
a and c
a and c
What is the most accurate statement to make about the process of hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils?
hydrogenation makes the oils more healthy because of the addition of hydrogen to keep them liquid in food products
oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid
hydrogenation will increase the activity of vitamins found in the oils
eating hydrogenated oils has the same health benefits as eating liquid vegetable oils
oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid
Which of the following statements best describes individuals who have had their gallbladder removed?
The liver stops producing bile.
They cannot digest food.
Bile is released directly into the small intestine.
Bile is not delivered into the small intestine.
bile is released directly into the small intestine
Which of the following words on an ingredient list would alert you to the presence of trans fatty acids in the product?
hydrogenated vegetable oil
liquid corn oil
shortening
a and b
a and c
a and c
Your diet has been evaluated and you are consuming an average of 2800 calories, 62 grams of saturated fat, and 5 grams of trans fat daily. Are these values within recommendations for heart health?
yes, because the energy from saturated fat is within the recommended percentage for total fat energy
no, because the energy from saturated fat is higher than the recommended percentage for saturated fat
yes, because trans fat is within the recommendation for trans fat energy percentage in the diet
no, because the trans fat energy percentage is lower than the recommendation for total fat energy
no, because the energy from saturated fat is higher than the recommended percentage for saturated fat
A 1/2 cup of low-fat granola contains 195 calories wth 36 calories from fat. How many total grams of fat are in this product?
3
4
8
9
4
A 135-pound woman needs how much protein?
49 grams/day
56 grams/day
86 grams/day
110 grams/day
49 grams/day
A 3-year-old child from a homeless family has been brought into the health clinic with a swollen belly, fluid buildup around her ankles, brittle hair, and irritability. Her mother has been feeding her mostly bread and dry cereal over the past several months. Providers suspect that she may have which form of PEM?
kwashiorkor
marasmus
dysentery
osteoporosis
kwashiorkor
A boy 10 years old is going through a growth spurt. Because he needs to build new muscle tissue, what should his nitrogen status be?
positive nitrogen balance
negative nitrogen balance
nitrogen equilibrium
nitrogen deficiency
positive nitrogen balance
A child suffering from protein deficiency has edema. This is an example of protein's role in:
supporting growth and maintenance.
building enzymes and hormones.
maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance.
maintaining acid-base balance.
maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
A woman who is on a vegan diet has become pregnant. What would be a health concern for her?
she will need to increase intake of soy products and seaweed to receive adequate B12
she may have difficulty gaining adequate weight during her pregnancy
she may have too high an iron intake because of the high iron levels in plant foods
her diet will most likely be deficient in omega-6 fatty acids
she may have difficulty gaining adequate weight during her pregnancy
A young man who is a sedentary college student needs how much protein if he weighs 175 pounds?
46 grams/day
64 grams/day
86 grams/day
140 grams/day
64 grams/day
A(n) _____ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.
peptide
amino acid
denatured
sulfur
peptide
An athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because:
the body has no place to store extra amino acids.
the body will dismantle its tissue proteins in this situation.
the body converts amino acid residues to fuel or stores them as fat.
a and b
a and c
a and c
Cells will do all of the following to create their own working proteins from available amino acids except:
synthesize nonessential amino acids that are missing for the protein that is being made.
obtain amino acids that are available in the cell's amino acid pool.
slow down protein synthesis until enough of the limiting amino acid is available again.
hold partially completed proteins until the diet provides the missing amino acids.
hold partially completed proteins until the diet provides the missing amino acids
Certain proteins act as buffers in the blood. In this role they are responsible for:
providing immunity from foreign substances that invade the body.
making sure that sodium is transported outside the cells.
ensuring that too much fluid in the cells doesn't cause edema.
picking up and releasing hydrogens in the blood to balance its pH.
picking up and releasing hydrogens in the blood to balance its pH
Our body has the need to eat protein-containing foods regularly because:
we need essential amino acids that can only be provided by foods.
our bodies are not able to make any amino acids for protein structure.
the function of protein is to maintain our muscle strength.
protein is broken down quickly during digestion and lost from the body.
we need essential amino acids that can only be provided by foods
The stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by:
enzymes.
a coat of mucus.
saliva.
antibodies.
a coat of mucus
The strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food is called:
mutual supplementation.
complementation.
simultaneous augmentation.
a and b
b and c
mutual supplementation
What is one of the risks of consuming a diet high in protein?
a high-protein diet from food sources increases the loss of calcium from the body in urine
a high-protein diet can cause kidney disease
a high-protein diet can raise homocysteine levels in the blood
high intakes of vegetable proteins can increase the risk of heart disease
a high-protein diet can raise homocysteine levels in the blood
When amino acids are absorbed by the cells of the small intestine:
they are absorbed best in large doses of a single amino acid.
they are absorbed without preference at all sites on the cells.
they must be broken into single amino acids before they can be absorbed.
they can be circulated in the bloodstream to other cells and linked together to create new proteins.
they can be circulated in the bloodstream to other cells and linked together to create new proteins
When amino acids are degraded for energy, their amine groups are stripped off and used elsewhere or incorporated by the liver into:
bile.
urea.
glucose.
urine.
urea
Which of the following cooking methods would you use to increase the digestibility of protein?
frying
stewing
grilling
baking
stewing
Which of the following food groups does not provide significant protein?
fruits
grains
vegetables
milk, yogurt and cheese
fruits
Which of the following is a protein catalyst, which acts on other substances to change them chemically?
hormone
antibody
lipoprotein
enzyme
enzyme
Which of the following is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or fat?
carbon
hydrogen
nitrogen
oxygen
nitrogen
A compound in food that can be converted into an active vitamin inside the body is known as a(an):
precursor.
antivitamin.
coenzyme.
enzyme.
precursor
A girl has stopped growing in height prematurely because her bones are not going through the remodeling process necessary for growth. This is most likely from a deficiency of which vitamin?
vitamin A
vitamin D
vitamin E
vitamin K
vitamin A
A non-food source from which vitamin K can be obtained is:
sunlight.
intestinal bacteria.
antibiotics.
a and b
b and c
intestinal bacteria
A person who has taken antibiotics for several weeks because of a severe bacterial infection may develop a deficiency of:
vitamin A.
vitamin D.
vitamin E.
vitamin K.
vitamin K
A woman who is on a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss may have difficulty maintaining an adequate level of the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate. What foods being avoided in her diet are most likely to cause this?
grain foods and cereals
fruits
dairy products
starchy vegetables
grain foods and cereals
All enriched grain products in the U.S. now have folic acid added to them because:
there is a prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, which folic acid helps identify.
most young women don't have an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables.
folic acid will reduce the absorption of folate to prevent toxicity.
very few foods contain natural folate.
most young women don't have an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables
An elderly woman has had difficulty with digesting her foods because of reduced stomach acid, has had progressively worse nerve pain in her legs, and is now having difficulty walking. Her physician suspects she may have a deficiency of which vitamin?
vitamin C
vitamin B12
vitamin B6
folate
vitamin B12
Any disease that produces _____ malabsorption can bring about deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, and K.
carbohydrate
protein
fat
a and b
b and c
fat
By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except:
an organic compound.
indispensable to body function.
needed in minute amounts.
a non-essential nutrient.
a non-essential nutrient
Characteristics of water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except:
they seldom reach toxic levels.
they are easily absorbed and excreted.
they dissolve in water.
they are stored extensively in tissues.
they are stored extensively in tissues
Much of the vitamin E people consume comes from
vegetable oils and products made from them.
fruits and vegetables.
meats, fish, poultry, and eggs.
a and b
b and c
vegetable oils and products made from them
Research suggests that deficiency of vitamin D may lead to:
low blood pressure.
cardiovascular disease.
gallbladder disease.
kidney stones
cardiovascular disease
The B vitamins act as part of:
anticoagulants.
antibodies.
coenzymes.
intrinsic factors.
coenzymes
The USP symbol on the label of a vitamin supplement means that:
it contains the ingredients as listed on the label.
it has been tested for effectiveness.
it will dissolve in the digestive tract.
a and b
a and c
a and c
The amount of _____ people need is proportional to protein intake.
niacin
vitamin B6
folacin
vitamin B12
vitamin B6
The best natural sources of folate include:
cereals.
raw spinach.
cooked strawberries.
a and b
b and c
raw spinach
The main function of vitamin K is:
to act as an antioxidant in cell membranes.
to help synthesize proteins that help clot the blood.
to influence body functions through its regulation of the genes.
to help synthesize key bone proteins.
to help synthesize proteins that help clot the blood
The vitamin D deficiency disease in adults is known as:
osteomalacia.
pellagra.
rickets.
macular degeneration.
osteomalacia
Vitamin A plays an important role in:
maintenance of body linings.
blood clotting.
reproduction.
a and b
a and c
a and c
Vitamin E serves as:
a precursor.
a vitamin antagonist.
an antioxidant.
an antivitamin.
an antioxidant
Which of the following B vitamins is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?
vitamin B6
biotin
folate
vitamin B12
folate
Which of the following is the most potentially toxic of all vitamins?
A
E
K
D
D
Which of the following people would be able to make sufficient amounts of vitamin D without having to eat foods containing the vitamin?
someone who goes to a tanning booth twice a week
someone who works in an office with windows across an entire wall
someone who wears light-weight clothing and regularly takes a walk outdoors
someone with dark skin who takes a 15-minute walk each day
someone who wears light-weight clothing and regularly takes a walk outdoors
Which of the following preparation or storage techniques for fruits and vegetables will preserve the most vitamins?
placing milk in glass bottles on the grocery cooler shelves
serving containers of cut salad fruits and vegetables open in a chilled buffet server
placing whole fresh garden vegetables on a table at a sunny farmer's market
stir-frying vegetables in a wok for an oriental dish for dinner
stir-frying vegetables in a wok for an oritental dish for dinner
Which of the following would provide the highest amount of vitamin E?
whole milk
a pork chop
a fried chicken leg
wheat germ oil
wheat germ oil
Who would be at the greatest risk of developing osteomalacia?
women with low calcium intake and little exposure to the sun who have repeated pregnancies
children breastfed for an exceptionally long time
children with little exposure to the sun
men with low calcium intakes
women with low calcium intake and little exposure to the sun who have repeated pregnancies
Women taking vitamin supplements over several years to help with PMS symptoms developed problems with numbness in their hands and feet and were then unable to walk. Which vitamin in the supplement was most likely to cause the symptoms?
vitamin A
vitamin C
vitamin B6
folate
vitamin B6
You eat frequently at fast-food restaurants. In order to improve the nutritional quality and vitamin A content of a typical fast-food meal you would:
order a salad with cheese and carrots.
order a large serving of fries.
drink a milkshake.
order a cheeseburger.
order a salad with cheese and carrots
You have a friend who eats a lot of highly-processed foods, fast foods, and convenience foods, but does drink fortified milk. You tell your friend that she is at risk for developing _____ deficiency.
vitamin A
vitamin E
vitamin K
vitamin D
vitamin E
You have mixed a container of juice from its concentrate form and placed the open pitcher in the refrigerator to drink from over several days. Which vitamin in the juice is most at risk from the exposure to the air in the refrigerator?
vitamin A
vitamin C
riboflavin
vitamin B6
vitamin C