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198 terms

English 12 Literary Terms

STUDY
PLAY
active voice
Describes the relationship between the action (and state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice.
allegory
An extended narrative, which carries a second meaning along with its surface story; the people and events are symbolic.
alliteration
The repetition of similar consonant sounds at the beginning of words.
allusion
Referring metaphorically to persons, places, and things from history or previous literature. Enrich their contexts by reminding the reader of relevant associations.
analogy
An explanation of one thing by comparing it point by point with something else.
antagonist
The forces arrayed against the main character (persons, things, conventions of society, or traits of the protagonist's own character).
anti-climax
An abrupt declension (either deliberate or unintended) on the part of a speaker or writer from the dignity of idea which he appeared to be aiming at. (ex. "The holy passion of Friendship is of so sweet and steady and loyal and enduring a nature that it will last through a whole lifetime, if not asked to lend money.")
antithesis
Using contrasts for effect (ex. Deserts are dry; oceans are wet)
apostrophe
The direct addressing of a person, an inanimate entity, or an abstract quality as though it were present and listening.
argumentative essay
An essay, which attempts to convince the reader of the truth of a premise by means of logic and other forms of persuasion.
anecdotal evidence
Usually relate to how certain types of evidence cannot be used to logically conclude something.
archaic language
Old-fashioned, out-of-date language and expressions.
aside
A stage convention used to indicate words spoken by a character but heard only by the audience and not by other characters on stage.
assonance
The repetition of vowel sounds without the repetition of the same consonants. (ex. The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.)
atmosphere
The mood the reader gets from the setting, the characterization and the tone of the narrator.
audience
The people for whom a written work or presentation is intended.
autobiography
A non-fictional account of a person's life written by the subject.
ballad
Traditionally, narrative poems that began as songs and were handed down orally.
ballad stanza
Four-line stanzas (quatrains) with alternating four-beat and three-beat lines, and rhymes in the second and fourth lines.
bias
A subjective point of view in which the writer's opinion affects the integrity of the work.
biography
A non-fictional account of someone's life.
blank verse
Usually iambic pentameter but no rhyme. (ex. Shakespeare's plays)
cacophony
A combination of harsh, unpleasant sounds, which create an aggregate effect.
caricature
A description of a person using exaggeration of some characteristics and oversimplification of others for comic reasons.
case study
A detailed analysis of an individual, group, or event.
catastrophe
One name for the concluding action of a tragedy; a disaster of huge proportions.
cause and effect
Two events are related when one event brings about or causes the other. The event that happens first is the cause; the one that follows is the effect.
character
A person who is responsible for the thoughts and actions within a story, poem, or other literature.
characterization
A method of presenting the special qualities or features of a character.
character foil
A character that contrasts with another character (usually the protagonist) and so highlights various facets of the main character's personality.
chorus
A group of people who serve mainly as commentators on the characters and events. Add to the audience's understanding of the play by expressing traditionally moral, religious, and social attitudes.
chronological order
The order in which events happen in time.
cliché
An over-used, time-worn expression or idea.
climactic order
To save the most important to last.
climax
Turning point, point of maximum interest, and highest tension in the plot of a story, play, or film. Usually occurs towards the end of story after the reader has understood the conflict and become emotionally involved with the characters.
colloquialism
A word or phrase used in an easy informal style of writing or speaking.
colloquial language
Informal language; language that is "conversational".
comedy
A ludicrous and amusing event or series of events in a work of literature.
comedic relief
The inclusion of a humorous character or scene in an otherwise serious work of literature.
compare and contrast
To note the similarities and differences between two things.
comparison
The process of identifying similarities.
conflict
The tension or problem of a story; a struggle between opposing forces. (man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. himself)
connotation
The cluster of implications that words or phrases may carry with them, as distinguished from their denotative, or exact, meanings.
consonance
A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants are marked by changes in the intervening vowels.
contrast
Showing differences between or among things.
couplet
A pair of rhymed lines that form a stanza.
denotation
The specific, exact meaning of a word, independent of its emotional coloration or associations.
denouement
The outcome of a series of events, the resolution that occurs after the climax of a work of literature.
descriptive essay
An essay that describes a person, place, or object.
dialect
Language from a particular place, era, or social class.
dialogue
Lines spoken between characters of a work of literature.
diary
An informal record of a person's private life.
diction
The choice of words and word order in a work of literature.
didactic
Writing used to teach or convince the reader of a particular point.
dilemma
A problem that creates conflict within or between characters.
direct presentation
When the writer tells readers what kind of personality the character possesses rather than allowing the character to show his or her personality and allow readers to draw their own conclusions.
dissonance
The deliberate use of syllables or words that sounds harsh together.
drama
Writing presented in the form of a pantomime, play, or dialogue in front of an audience.
dramatic irony
A situation in a narrative or drama where the audience knows more than the character.
dramatic monologue
When a single character addresses a silent audience at a critical moment and reveals something about himself or herself.
dramatic form
Various literary forms that are related and include dramatic material.
dynamic character
A character that develops and changes in a work of literature.
editorial
An opinion piece about any topic.
elegy
A mournful poem; a lament for the dead.
emotional appeal
Persuading an audience through the use of emotion.
epic
A poem that is a long narrative, has a hero or anti-hero, uses elevated language, and in which the outcome of a group of people is based on the success or failure of the protagonist.
epilogue
A short addition of concluding section at the end of a literary work, often dealing with the future of its characters.
epiphany
A revelation of such power and insight that it alters the world-view of the person who experiences it.
epigram
A short verse at the beginning of a poem or novel.
epitaph
An inscription on a tombstone or monument in memory of the person buried there; a summary statement of commemoration for a dead person.
euphemism
A "nicer" word or phrase used to replace an offensive word or phrase.
euphony
Agreeable sounds produced by a succession of mellifluous words.
expert testimony
An opinion given by a person highly educated in a topic.
exposition
The "exposing" of the story behind the story; an act of writing a speech for the purpose of conveying information.
expository essay
A simple essay usually factual and written without emotion.
extended metaphor
A metaphor that is extended through a stanza or entire poem, often by multiple comparisons of unlike objects or ideas.
external conflict
A struggle between two opposing characters or forces.
fable
A short tale with animal characters that teaches a moral lesson.
falling action
The action that occurs after the climax of a work of literature.
fantasy
Literature that contains characters and a plot involving magic and invented characters.
farce
A light humorous play.
figurative language
Language that contains many poetic devices; a way of saying something other than the literal meaning of words.
first person point of view
A POV in which an "I" or "we" serves as a narrator of a piece of literature.
flashback
The presentation of a scene that takes place before the present in a work of literature.
flat character
A minor character who has little depth of personality.
foil
A character that contrasts with and reveals various aspects of the main character's personality.
foreshadowing
A hint of things to come.
form
The structure of a piece of writing.
formal essay
An essay that uses academic language, logical organization, and serious purpose.
formal language
The use of "high" language or dialect in preference to "low" language or dialect; academic language
frame story
Employs a narrative technique whereby an introductory main story is composed, at least in part, for the purpose of setting the stage for a fictive narrative or organizing a set of shorter stories, each of which is a story within a story.
free verse
A poem that has no limitations in its use of meter or rhyme.
genre
A category of literary work- horror, comedy, tragedy, chick lit., pastoral, etc.
graphic text
A combination of pictures and words to tell a story.
hero
The central character of a story, usually possesses positive qualities (as opposed to a protagonist who can be positive or negative).
historical reference
A reference to something historical.
hyperbole
Obvious and intentional exaggeration.
iambic pentameter
A common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable.
idiom
An expression whose meaning is not predictable from the usual meanings of its constituent elements or from the grammatical rules of a language.
image
Concrete details and figures of speech that help the reader to form vivid sense impressions of what is being described.
imagery
Representation through language of sense experience. Most often suggests a mental picture, but may also represent a sound, smell, taste, or tactical experience.
indeterminate ending
Literature with an uncertain ending or where some problem or conflict may remain undecided.
indirect presentation
The writer presents the character in action, allowing the reader to draw his or her own conclusions about the personality of that character.
informal essay
An essay that does not follow the restrictions of a formal paper. Personal pronouns and casual, spoken language are acceptable.
informal language
The casual language we use every day.
interior monologue
A type of stream of consciousness that depicts the inner thoughts of a character.
internal conflict
The problem or struggle that takes place in the main character's minds (person vs. self).
internal rhyme
Rhyme which comes within lines.
irony
A literary device which reveals concealed or contradictory meanings.
jargon
Language especially the vocabulary peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group.
juxtaposition
An act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
legend
A story handed down from the past about a specific person, usually someone of heroic accomplishments.
limited omniscient point of view
Author tells the story in third person, but from the viewpoint of a single character. The thoughts and feelings of other characters are not shown.
literal language
What is said is based exactly in reality without the comparisons used in figurative language.
lyric
Any short poem intended mainly to express a state of mind or feeling.
melodrama
A dramatic form characterized by excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and thrilling action, and an artificially happy ending.
metaphor
A comparison between two things which are essentially dissimilar. Usually implied rather than directly stated.
meter
Any regular pattern of rhythm based on stressed and unstressed syllables.
monologue
An extended speech by one person.
mood
The overall emotional atmosphere of a scene or situation.
mystery
A suspense story which contains a crime and a solution by a detective.
myth
Applies particularly to a story connected with the religion of a primitive civilization. Usually about gods or superhuman beings and are invented to explain certain beliefs or some aspect of nature.
narrative
The story or account itself.
narration
The telling of a story.
narrator
The person telling the story.
objective (language, tone, etc.)
Not about the thoughts of the speaker or writer; giving the facts as they are without bias.
objective point of view
The narrator knows only what can be heard and seen from outside the characters' thoughts and emotions.
octave
An eight line stanza.
ode
A lyric poem of some length, serious in subject and dignified in style.
omniscient point of view
God-like scope; able to enter the mind of any character at any time to reveal his thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.
onomatopoeia
The use of words which sound like what they mean.
oxymoron
Two contradictory words placed side by side for emphasis (ex. jumbo shrimp).
paradox
A statement in which there is an apparent contradiction which is actually true.
parallelism
A repetition of sentences using the same structure.
parody
A work designed to ridicule the style and substance of another literary work.
passive voice
The subject of the sentence is neither a do-er or a be-er, but is acted upon by some other agent or by something unnamed.
pastoral
A literary work that has to do with shepherds and rustic settings.
pathos
Occurs when the audience experiences the emotions of pity, tenderness, or sorrow.
personal essay
A first person narrative.
personification
Giving human characteristics to an animal, object, or idea.
persuasive essay
An essay designed to convince a reader of a writer's point of view.
persuasive technique
Strategies employed (such as emotional appeal or bias) to convince a reader of a writer's point of view.
plot
The story line or organization of incidents in a story. Consists of episodes and conflict, usually has a rising and falling action.
point of view
Who tells the story and how the story gets told.
pro and con argument
Expressing arguments that are both for and against a position.
prologue
An introductory speech or written passage at the start of a work of literature.
propaganda
Biased writing with extreme examples meant to sway an audience to a certain POV.
protagonist
The main character.
proverb
A phrase, describing an example of a basic truth that is transferred to common situations.
purpose
What the writer is trying to achieve through the writing.
pun
A joke or type of wordplay in which similar senses or sounds of two words or phrases, or different senses of the same word, are deliberately confused.
quatrain
A four lined stanza that can be rhymed or unrhymed.
question and answer
The process of raising a question while reading in an effort to understand characters and events.
refrain
A line or lines that are repeated in music or verse.
repetition
When a specific word or phrase is used several times to emphasize a particular idea.
research
Close, careful study using various sources of a topic.
resolution
The part of a work of literature that occurs after the climax and ties up any loose ends.
rhetorical question
A literary technique that involves asking a question that has an obvious answer that does not need to be answered.
rhyme
The repetition of similar or duplicate sounds at regular intervals, usually the repetition of the terminal sounds of words at the ends of lines.
rhyme scheme
The pattern of rhyme; traditionally marked by assigning letters of the alphabet to each rhyming sound at the end of each line.
rhythm
A pattern of stressed and unstressed sounds in poetry.
rising action
The events that lead up to the climax in a work of literature.
round character
A many-sided character that does not always act predictably.
sarcasm
Crudely mocking or contemptuous language; a form of verbal irony.
satire
A form of literature that ridicules some aspect of human behavior, customs, or attitude in an attempt to bring about change.
sestet
A six line poem or stanza.
setting
The time, place, and mood of a work of literature.
simile
When something is described by comparing it to something else, using like, than or as (ex. "He ran like a monkey.").
slang
A type of informal verbal communication that is generally unacceptable for formal writing.
soliloquy
A dramatic conversation through which a character, alone onstage, utters his or her thoughts aloud.
sonnet
A 14 line poem usually written in iambic pentameter; can be Shakespearean or Italian
speaker
The "voice" used by an author to tell a story or speak a poem.
stanza
A "paragraph" in poetry.
stream of consciousness
A running or flowing way a character or narrator expresses his or her feelings and inner-most thoughts.
statistical evidence
The use of factual numbers to support an argument.
static character
A character who does not change throughout a work; the reader's knowledge of the character also does not grow.
stereotype
A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified concept, opinion, or image.
stock/stereotyped character
A one-dimensional character that possessed stereotyped qualities relating to gender, class, or ethnicity.
story within a story
A literary device in which one story is told during the action of another story.
style
The characteristics of an author's writing.
stylistic technique
The techniques used by an author in his or her writing.
subjective (language, tone, etc.)
Language that can be interpreted in different ways depending on the reader.
surprise ending
An ending that is meant to shock the reader.
suspense
A state or condition of mental uncertainty or excitement, as in awaiting a decision or outcome, usually accompanied by a degree of apprehension or anxiety.
symbol
An object that represents something more than its literal definition.
symbolism
The use of symbols to convey meaning.
theme
A unifying or dominant idea in a story usually implied rather than directly used.
thesis
The main argument of an essay.
thesis statement
A statement that presents the main argument of an essay.
third person point of view
The point of view that relates action through "he" and "she".
tone
The author's implicit attitude towards the reader or the places, people, and events in a work of literature.
tragedy
A work of literature that features a catastrophic fall from grace of its protagonist.
understatement
The opposite of hyperbole; the purposeful saying of less than what is meant.
voice
The dominating tone of a literary work, not always identifiable with the actual views of the author.
wit
Intellectually amusing statements.
synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole (ex. All hands on deck.).
verbal irony
The use of words where what is said is different and often opposite of what is meant.
situational irony
Refers to a contrast between what a character or the reader expects to happen in a situation and what really happens.