175 terms

Ancient History Final

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etruscans
settled north of Rome and made it a city
Latium
Area of italy in which Rome is located
Tiber River
River that flows through Rome
753 B.C.
Romulus and Remus founded Rome in this year
Romulus and Remus
founders of Rome
Hortensian Law
Law passed in ancient Rome which made all resolutions passed by plebians binding on all citizens
imperium
absolute power (usually given to consuls)
consuls
highest elected office of the Roman Republic and heads of the government
paterfamilias
the head of a Roman family
Roman Senate
political institution in Roman Republic (SPQR)
patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
plebians
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
Struggle of the Orders
a great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.
Twelve Tables
Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.
Cincinnatus
Reluctant Roman dictator who returned to his farm after completing his duty for the government.
Roman Confederation
Romans gave full citizenship to some conquered people
Pyrrhus
Son of Achilles, and the killer of Priam
Pyrrhic victory
costly victory
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
Carthaginians
Hannibal was the leader of the________
Hannibal
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Scipio Africanus
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
Battle of Zama
the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War
1st Punic War
Battle for Sicily; takes place on sea; Rome wins and Carthage has to pay tribute to them; Carthagians move to Spain
2nd Punic War
hannibal and men traveled over alps on way to invade italy, brought war elephants, carthaginians defeated romans
3rd Punic War
Rome destroys Carthage
Cato the Elder
He was the Roman statesman who hated Carthage and started the Third Punic War, ended all speeches with "Carthage must be destroyed"
latifundia
Huge estates owned by wealthy families
equites
Class of business people and landowners in ancient Rome who had wealth and power
nobiles
Small group of rich and powerful families of both patrician and plebeian class who controlled the highest offices in Rome
Pontifex maximus
the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins.
roman schooling
classical education
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform under the late Roman republic; both were killed by order of the Senate.
Sulla
Rival of Marius, He marches on rome and takes control of the senate, he kills all who oppose him. Tries to reestablish senate as roman body of control. Is friends with pompey
Cicero
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)
Crassus
richest man in rome, and was part of the first Triumverate
Spartacus
a gladiator who lead a slave revolt
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic
Battle of Pharsalus
battle in which Caesar defeated Pompey in 48 BC
First Triumvirate
Pompey, Caesar, Crassus
The Rubicon
river which separated Caesar's territory from Pompey's
Mark Antony
Caesar's right-hand man, teamed with Octavian to punish Caesar's murders, fell in love with Cleopatra, went into civil war, at Battle of Actium, he and Cleopatra fled and committed suicide
Cleopatra
She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
Octavian
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
Second Triumvirate
Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus
Battle of Actium
battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.
The Commentaries
Caesar wrote about himself in what?
Julian Calendar
the solar calendar introduced in Rome in 46 b.c. by Julius Caesar and slightly modified by Augustus, establishing the 12-month year of 365 days with each 4th year having 366 days and the months having 31 or 30 days except for February
princeps
the first among equal
Augustus
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.
imperial cult
New Religion of rome
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Livy
Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)
Caligula
Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity. Became ill and resumed treason trials for money. His horse was a senator.
Nero
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
Flavians
dynasty of the Roman emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Dominitian, whose rule was a time of relative peace and good government
"Good Emperors"
this group of emperors included Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
Meditations
A historical literary work by Stoic emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Tacitus
Senator and historian of the Roman Empire, wrote the Annals and the Histories.
aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
"Bread and Circuses"
public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire
gladiatorial games
Roman games in which gladiators faught
Vesuvius
volcanic mountain that covered Pompeii and Herculaneum, winds blowing towards coast so covered towns, erupted in AD 79
Goths
Germanic tribe made up of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths who threatened invasion to the empire
Franks
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
Essenes
sect of Jews of Judea who were uncompromising in their piety and their disgust with what they considered a corrupted priesthood; library is known as the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
scrolls that teach us about the Essenes
Zealots
Jews that rose up in armed rebellion against Rome in 66ce; unsuccessful, and Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed
Paul of Tarsus
A jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the road to Damascus.
Diocletian
Roman Emperor (284-305); the last systematic persecution of Christians took place towards the end of Diocletian's reign
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
Theodosius
The Roman emperor who made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Huns
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
Visogoths
first invading group to sack Rome
Ostrogoths
East Goths, driven westward by the Huns, a Germanic tribe that attacked Rome in 476 AD. The Leader was Odoacar, who kicked out the last Roman Emperor.
Romulus Augustulus
the last emperor in the western Roman Empire; overthrown in 476
Theodoric
King of Ostrogoths, opposed odacer, raised imperial court and made goths and romans live together, moved capital to Ravenna
Vandals
one of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman Empire
Odoacer
Germanic barbarian leader who ended the western Roman Empire in 476 and became the first barbarian ruler of Italy (434-493)
Franks
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
Clovis
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
compurgation
an ancient form of trial in which an accused person cold call 11 people to swear to their belief in his innocence
ordeal
a primitive method of determining a person's guilt or innocence by subjecting the accused person to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under divine control
heresy
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
diocese
A church district controlled by a bishop
Council of Nicaea
Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.
Arianism
early teaching of the church that was heretical by saying that Jesus was not God but created by God
Petrine supremacy
idea that Christ's authority went to Popes starting with St. Peter. Acknowledged by the "Donation of Constantine", though ended up being a forgery.
Vicar of Christ
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Gregory I
"Gregory the Great"; broadened the authority of the papacy, or pope's office, beyond spiritual role; papacy became secular power involved in politics
St. Anthony
creator of hermit monasticism
St. Augustine
early christian leader who writes the book City of God that instructs how Christians are to be
St. Benedict
he founded a monastery in nothern ital in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions gonverning the lives of monks that was used by monasteries and vonbents across europe.
abbots
leaders of a monastery
St. Hilda
founded the monastery of whitby in 657; nun; england; made learning important part of monastery
abbesses
head of a convent
monasticism
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
St. Patrick
converts Celtic Island to Christianity, which spread to the Herbrides islands
Neoplatonism
a system of philosophical and religious doctrines composed of elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism and oriental mysticism
St. Boniface
undertook the conversion of Pagan germans in frisia, bavaria, and saxsony. By 740 the apostle of the germans had become the most famous churchmen in Europe. was killed trying to convert the pagan frisian.
St. Jerome
Converted bible into latin, called the Vulgate
Cassiodorus
established a place where he put monks to work translating works from Greek to Latin
trivium
Latin for "three ways" this was one of two sections into which the arts were divided in Medieval universities. It referred to the three primary branches of Medieval education: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic.
quadrivium
Latin for "four ways" More advanced program in the Medieval liberal arts program, it included the study of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
Justinian
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
Theodora
the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.
Corpus Juris Civilis
the body of civil law in the Byzantine Empire created by Justinian's jurists; composed of the Code, Digest, and Institutes
Hagia Sophia
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world. in Constantinople
Hippodrome
Built by Justinian; A huge stadium; Held athletic events and games; Seated 60,000 people
iconoclastic
attacking or seeking to overthrow popular or traditional beliefs, ideas, or institutions
Muhammed
The prophet and founder of Islam
Bedouins
Arab nomads
Qur'an
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Allah
Muslim name for the one and only God
Five Pillars of Islam
the basic duties of Islam, including belief in Allah and Muhammad the prophet, prayer, charity or almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca
Hegira
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
Shari'a
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Shi'ites
Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph. Fundamentalist
Sunnites
Largest Muslim sect which acknowledges all of Muhammad's successors.
Battle of Tours
Arabs were defeated by Charles Martel, and Muslim advancement was stopped
Pepin
became "Mayor Of the Palace." Was the first frankish king to be annioted by the pope. He help the pope became the political ruler of most of the Italian Peninsula. Donated papal states to the Pope.
Charlemagne
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of literature and learning. Carolingian Renaissance, conquered Saxonx. Holy Roman Emperor.
Basque disaster
As Charlemagne army tried to cross the pyranees the bascques anialated his rear guard. "Song of Roland"
Einhard
was a Frankish courtier, a dedicated servant of Charlemagne, of whom he wrote his famous biography
Margraves
Charlemagne's men who ruled the districts, collect taxes, raise troops for the army, and serve as Charlemagne's representatives in local courts. Governed the marches.
Missi dominici
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
Christmas Day 800
day charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor
scriportia
writing rooms for copying of manuscripts in medieval monastaries
clerical celibaby
complete absence from sexual activity
Carolingian Renaissance
Charlemagne's efforts led to the revival of learning and culture, rebirth. Led by alcuin of York
Alcuin of York
A respected scholar who hired other scholars (usually monks) to teach at Charlemagne's schools. He also established a curriculum. Charlemagne's favorite scholar
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne's only surviving son (814-840) his sons divided empire into 3 brining end to Carolingian empire
Treaty of Verdun
843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms
Magyars
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
Battle of Lechfeld
Ended the Magyar Threat; by Otto the great; 955; Otto decisively defeated an invasion by the Magyars.
Vikings
9th century invasions Franks, Ireland, North Russia. Vladimir converts
Danelaw
Northeastern region of England ruled by the Vikings
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
lords
gives protection in exchange for land
vassal
a person holding a fief
stirrup
support consisting of metal loops into which rider's feet go
knights
vassal to lords; deligation is directly to noble
vassalage
system where a man would pledge loyalty to a lord and carry out his commands, collect taxes, and get troops toether; vassals looked to lords to give them land in return for their service; pledging ceremony took place between lord and vassal; vassals could pledge to multiple lords
fief
Land owned by a lord given to a vassal in return for a service
dux
leader
Otto I
king of Germany; like charlemagne; succesors were called Holy Roman Empire
Hugh Capet
elected king by nobles in 987 AD and established the Capetian Dynasty
Alfred the Great
stopped Vikings and unified Anglo-Saxon kingdom to put up a united front against the Vikings; only English king with the title "Great". Wessex
manorialism
An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.
serfs
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection in feudalism
Slavs
Ancient cultures from around 500 AD that came to Northern Russia. Many lived in Novgorod and Kiev
Orthodox Christianity
split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church. Byzantine
Cyril
Byzantine missionary that was sent to Russia to spread Orthodoxy; created Slavic Cyrillic script
Methodius
Christian missionaries, brother of Cyril, created alphabet for Slavs (Cyrillic)
Rurik
Rus military leader and legendary first king of the Russians
Rus
the medieval Russian state established by Scandanavian traders in the 9th century. Named after Rurik their leader and the color of their hair.
Kiev
Original capital city of Russia
Vladimir
Russian ruler who chose Byzantine Christianity as the official religion of the Russian state
algebra
developed by Muslims
astrolabe
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
gentes
families grouped into social units, also known as "clans", descended from same ancestor and bearing same family name, closely associated with pracitce of clientage
Varus
leader of Octavian's legions who got killed in Teutoberg Forest
Julio Claudians
The 5 emperors that followed the dictatorship of Julius Caesar are known as the _______________
Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero
Hadrian's Pantheon
Built by Hadrian, a temple for all the gods
Seneca
Stoic philosopher who was Nero's tutor
Role of women
Did have some rights, legal and property rights; different than in Greece
Sadduccees
Accepted Hellenistic culture and compromised with Romans
Pharisees
Believed in life after death; Mishnah-interpretations
Talmud-instructions
Venerable Bede
wrote a history of England; one of the best historical works of the early middle ages. Was a Christian Anglo-Saxon