Law passed in ancient Rome which made all resolutions passed by plebians binding on all citizens
absolute power (usually given to consuls)
highest elected office of the Roman Republic and heads of the government
the head of a Roman family
political institution in Roman Republic (SPQR)
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
Struggle of the Orders
a great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination.
Rome's first code of laws; adopted in 450 B.C.
Reluctant Roman dictator who returned to his farm after completing his duty for the government.
Romans gave full citizenship to some conquered people
Son of Achilles, and the killer of Priam
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E. (p. 107)
Hannibal was the leader of the________
general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War
Roman general who commanded the invasion of Carthage in the second Punic War and defeated Hannibal at Zama (circa 237-183 BC)
Battle of Zama
the battle in 202 BC in which Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal at the end of the second Punic War
1st Punic War
Battle for Sicily; takes place on sea; Rome wins and Carthage has to pay tribute to them; Carthagians move to Spain
2nd Punic War
hannibal and men traveled over alps on way to invade italy, brought war elephants, carthaginians defeated romans
3rd Punic War
Rome destroys Carthage
Cato the Elder
He was the Roman statesman who hated Carthage and started the Third Punic War, ended all speeches with "Carthage must be destroyed"
Huge estates owned by wealthy families
Class of business people and landowners in ancient Rome who had wealth and power
Small group of rich and powerful families of both patrician and plebeian class who controlled the highest offices in Rome
the high priest of Rome, the head of Roman state religion; he appointed and oversaw the vestal virgins.
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
tribunes who attempted to introduce land and citizenship reform under the late Roman republic; both were killed by order of the Senate.
Rival of Marius, He marches on rome and takes control of the senate, he kills all who oppose him. Tries to reestablish senate as roman body of control. Is friends with pompey
a Roman statesman and orator remembered for his mastery of Latin prose (106-43 BC)
richest man in rome, and was part of the first Triumverate
a gladiator who lead a slave revolt
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic
Battle of Pharsalus
battle in which Caesar defeated Pompey in 48 BC
Pompey, Caesar, Crassus
river which separated Caesar's territory from Pompey's
Caesar's right-hand man, teamed with Octavian to punish Caesar's murders, fell in love with Cleopatra, went into civil war, at Battle of Actium, he and Cleopatra fled and committed suicide
She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus
Battle of Actium
battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.
Caesar wrote about himself in what?
the solar calendar introduced in Rome in 46 b.c. by Julius Caesar and slightly modified by Augustus, establishing the 12-month year of 365 days with each 4th year having 366 days and the months having 31 or 30 days except for February
the first among equal
First emperor of the Roman Empire. Julius Caesar's grand-nephew.
New Religion of rome
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)
Roman Emperor who succeeded Tiberius and whose uncontrolled passions resulted in manifest insanity. Became ill and resumed treason trials for money. His horse was a senator.
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
dynasty of the Roman emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Dominitian, whose rule was a time of relative peace and good government
this group of emperors included Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
A historical literary work by Stoic emperor Marcus Aurelius.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Senator and historian of the Roman Empire, wrote the Annals and the Histories.
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
"Bread and Circuses"
public entertainment that roman elites used to keep the plebeians happy and distracted from problems in the empire
Roman games in which gladiators faught
volcanic mountain that covered Pompeii and Herculaneum, winds blowing towards coast so covered towns, erupted in AD 79
Germanic tribe made up of the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths who threatened invasion to the empire
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
sect of Jews of Judea who were uncompromising in their piety and their disgust with what they considered a corrupted priesthood; library is known as the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
scrolls that teach us about the Essenes
Jews that rose up in armed rebellion against Rome in 66ce; unsuccessful, and Jewish Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed
Paul of Tarsus
A jew who had Roman citizenship and tried to stamp out Christianity until he had a vision on the road to Damascus.
Roman Emperor (284-305); the last systematic persecution of Christians took place towards the end of Diocletian's reign
Edict of Milan
issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire
The Roman emperor who made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Warlike people who migrated from Eastern Europe into territory controlled by Germanic tribes, forcing them to move into areas controlled by Rome
first invading group to sack Rome
East Goths, driven westward by the Huns, a Germanic tribe that attacked Rome in 476 AD. The Leader was Odoacar, who kicked out the last Roman Emperor.
the last emperor in the western Roman Empire; overthrown in 476
King of Ostrogoths, opposed odacer, raised imperial court and made goths and romans live together, moved capital to Ravenna
one of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman Empire
Germanic barbarian leader who ended the western Roman Empire in 476 and became the first barbarian ruler of Italy (434-493)
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
an ancient form of trial in which an accused person cold call 11 people to swear to their belief in his innocence
a primitive method of determining a person's guilt or innocence by subjecting the accused person to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under divine control
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
A church district controlled by a bishop
Council of Nicaea
Christian council that met in 325 to determine the question of the trinity; decided on the divinity of all three persons.
early teaching of the church that was heretical by saying that Jesus was not God but created by God
idea that Christ's authority went to Popes starting with St. Peter. Acknowledged by the "Donation of Constantine", though ended up being a forgery.
Vicar of Christ
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
"Gregory the Great"; broadened the authority of the papacy, or pope's office, beyond spiritual role; papacy became secular power involved in politics
creator of hermit monasticism
early christian leader who writes the book City of God that instructs how Christians are to be
he founded a monastery in nothern ital in the 6th century and wrote a set of instructions gonverning the lives of monks that was used by monasteries and vonbents across europe.
leaders of a monastery
founded the monastery of whitby in 657; nun; england; made learning important part of monastery
head of a convent
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
converts Celtic Island to Christianity, which spread to the Herbrides islands
a system of philosophical and religious doctrines composed of elements of Platonism and Aristotelianism and oriental mysticism
undertook the conversion of Pagan germans in frisia, bavaria, and saxsony. By 740 the apostle of the germans had become the most famous churchmen in Europe. was killed trying to convert the pagan frisian.
Converted bible into latin, called the Vulgate
established a place where he put monks to work translating works from Greek to Latin
Latin for "three ways" this was one of two sections into which the arts were divided in Medieval universities. It referred to the three primary branches of Medieval education: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic.
Latin for "four ways" More advanced program in the Medieval liberal arts program, it included the study of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code
the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.
Corpus Juris Civilis
the body of civil law in the Byzantine Empire created by Justinian's jurists; composed of the Code, Digest, and Institutes
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world. in Constantinople
Built by Justinian; A huge stadium; Held athletic events and games; Seated 60,000 people
attacking or seeking to overthrow popular or traditional beliefs, ideas, or institutions
The prophet and founder of Islam
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
Muslim name for the one and only God
Five Pillars of Islam
the basic duties of Islam, including belief in Allah and Muhammad the prophet, prayer, charity or almsgiving, fasting, and pilgrimage to Mecca
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Muslims that believe that only direct descendants of Muhammad should become caliph. Fundamentalist
Largest Muslim sect which acknowledges all of Muhammad's successors.
Battle of Tours
Arabs were defeated by Charles Martel, and Muslim advancement was stopped
became "Mayor Of the Palace." Was the first frankish king to be annioted by the pope. He help the pope became the political ruler of most of the Italian Peninsula. Donated papal states to the Pope.
King of the Franks who conquered much of Western Europe, great patron of literature and learning. Carolingian Renaissance, conquered Saxonx. Holy Roman Emperor.
As Charlemagne army tried to cross the pyranees the bascques anialated his rear guard. "Song of Roland"
was a Frankish courtier, a dedicated servant of Charlemagne, of whom he wrote his famous biography
Charlemagne's men who ruled the districts, collect taxes, raise troops for the army, and serve as Charlemagne's representatives in local courts. Governed the marches.
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
Christmas Day 800
day charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor
writing rooms for copying of manuscripts in medieval monastaries
complete absence from sexual activity
Charlemagne's efforts led to the revival of learning and culture, rebirth. Led by alcuin of York
Alcuin of York
A respected scholar who hired other scholars (usually monks) to teach at Charlemagne's schools. He also established a curriculum. Charlemagne's favorite scholar
Louis the Pious
Charlemagne's only surviving son (814-840) his sons divided empire into 3 brining end to Carolingian empire
Treaty of Verdun
843 Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary
Battle of Lechfeld
Ended the Magyar Threat; by Otto the great; 955; Otto decisively defeated an invasion by the Magyars.
9th century invasions Franks, Ireland, North Russia. Vladimir converts
Northeastern region of England ruled by the Vikings
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
gives protection in exchange for land
a person holding a fief
support consisting of metal loops into which rider's feet go
vassal to lords; deligation is directly to noble
system where a man would pledge loyalty to a lord and carry out his commands, collect taxes, and get troops toether; vassals looked to lords to give them land in return for their service; pledging ceremony took place between lord and vassal; vassals could pledge to multiple lords
Land owned by a lord given to a vassal in return for a service
king of Germany; like charlemagne; succesors were called Holy Roman Empire
elected king by nobles in 987 AD and established the Capetian Dynasty
Alfred the Great
stopped Vikings and unified Anglo-Saxon kingdom to put up a united front against the Vikings; only English king with the title "Great". Wessex
An economic system based on the manor and lands including a village and surrounding acreage which were administered by a lord. It developed during the Middle Ages to increase agricultural production.
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection in feudalism
Ancient cultures from around 500 AD that came to Northern Russia. Many lived in Novgorod and Kiev
split from Catholic Church because they did not believe in Pope as supreme ruler of Church. Byzantine
Byzantine missionary that was sent to Russia to spread Orthodoxy; created Slavic Cyrillic script
Christian missionaries, brother of Cyril, created alphabet for Slavs (Cyrillic)
Rus military leader and legendary first king of the Russians
the medieval Russian state established by Scandanavian traders in the 9th century. Named after Rurik their leader and the color of their hair.
Original capital city of Russia
Russian ruler who chose Byzantine Christianity as the official religion of the Russian state
developed by Muslims
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
families grouped into social units, also known as "clans", descended from same ancestor and bearing same family name, closely associated with pracitce of clientage
leader of Octavian's legions who got killed in Teutoberg Forest
The 5 emperors that followed the dictatorship of Julius Caesar are known as the _______________ Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero
Built by Hadrian, a temple for all the gods
Stoic philosopher who was Nero's tutor
Role of women
Did have some rights, legal and property rights; different than in Greece
Accepted Hellenistic culture and compromised with Romans
Believed in life after death; Mishnah-interpretations Talmud-instructions
wrote a history of England; one of the best historical works of the early middle ages. Was a Christian Anglo-Saxon