Personal restraint from indulging in the desire of sexual intercourse.
Historical Significance: In the religion of Christianity the vow of Abstinence played an important role in self purity and dignity.
A self governing state.
Historical Significance: The Roman Empire and Persian Empire are great example of city states within thier socities. In the Roman Empire, people were divided into several city-states. Similarly, in Persia, under Darius reign 20 satraps were created in order to keep the government in swift control
highly mobile army unit; troops trained to fight on horseback
relating to or containing or issuing from a bishop's office or throne; any large and important church; the principal Christian church building of a bishop's diocese
the state of being unmarried that priests and other religious people choose in order to dedicate their lives totally to Jesus Christ and God's People
A charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city's own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws.
circum- maritime Maritime trade that circumferences the earth. The English, French, Dutch Portuguese, Spanish were circum -maritime societies they sailed around the world trading conquering colonizing ect
A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis.
spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life/ change of religion
a community of persons devoted to religious life under a superior
A small group of people within a larger group who have more power, social standing, wealth, or talent than the rest of the group
Historical Significance:The hegemony of many elites in the past have led thier society to inequal states because of social and economic statuses.Wealthy classmen in the Roman Republic can be considered Elites due to the fact that even in a "free" society, wealth overpowers individuality.
(especially of medicine) of disease or anything resembling a disease attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population simultaneously; "an epidemic outbreak of influenza"
relating to a system in which people (called "vassals") were given protection and the use of land, in return for loyalty, payments, and services to a lord
business associations that dominated medieval towns; they passed laws, levied taxes, built protective walls for the city, etc. Each guild represented workers in one occupation such as weavers, bakers, brewers, sword makers, etc.
A closely organized system of beliefs, values, and ideas forming the basis of a social, economic, or political philosophy in a society.
Historical Significance:Ideology within a civilzation can be seen in the Roman and Han empires.Unlike other civilzations, the Han and Roman empire enforced several beliefs and values within thier society in which everyone had to follow.
The dividing of a society into levels based on power,social,and economic status.
Historical Significance: The social inequalities between many of the early civilizations are a reason to many of thier decline.Inequality,in imperial China, led to a peasant revolt resulting in the empires decline.The inequality of women in thier socities, may have not led to major changes but did result into more freedom within thier lives. Hiearchies singally maintained full authority of everyone in their community.Social divisions by the rulers and people of authority wtihin a empire led to thier uprisig power and the citizens weakening.
foot soldiers marching and fighting together. The vast majority of Civil War soldiers were infantry
a person who does no accept a particular faith; a person who does not believe in religion
a married woman, especially one who is mature and staid or dignified and has an established social position.
a soldier who is payed to fight for another country or group (dont have enough soldiers so they can just go pay for others but it can be bad cause they can be bought off and they are not as willing to fight and you have to pay for them
A woman who makes a business of assisting at childbirth.
A religious follower who is sent to foreign places in order to spread and seek new religious followers.
Historical Significance:The work of misionaries in Unit One can be seen through the trade routes of the Silk road and of the sub-saharan.Along with these trade routes, missionaries took advantage to spread the word of thier religion to foriegners.At times, the skill of these missionaries excelled, and they were ale to return to thier land with several converts.
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
the belief that there is only one God.
Historical Significance: The belief of one god can be seen in the religion of Christianity, Islam and Judaism.
the building used by Muslims for religious services
a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity
a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few. Usually governed by the elite.
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
Someone who portrays the life of shepherds or country people especially in an idealized and conventionalized manner.
Historical Significance:Pastoral people were significant to thier societies in many ways.These people were the first to enjoy from farming fileds,suburnban and country life out in the lands.They would usually contribute much to thier community by doing farm labor on a daily basis.
Social organization in which the men of a household have absolute authority of what occurs in each family members life.All inheiritance goes to the male succeeding in the family line.
Historical Significance: Many of the families that made up thier societies were patriarchal families.An example, of an civilization that had men in control of thier families was the classical Roman empire.
people who discover a new place
Role of nomads in trade
unsettled people who moved around a lot because they did not live in one place they were able to bring new ideas from other places to cities were those ideas were new.
Historical Significance: Nomadic settlers played important roles in trade for several reasons. Although, there isnt much evidence of trade between nomads ans merchants many believe it did occur. Nomads would exchange wild fruits and vegetables in return for cloth and other objects that were useful to them in thier hectic life.
a formal split within a religious organization (Christianity split in 2)
a principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states
the union (or attempted fusion) of different systems of thought or belief (especially in religion or philosophy) THE RCC
A government's use of private collectors to collect taxes. Individuals or corporations contract with the government to collect a fixed amount for the government and are permitted to keep as profit everything they collect over that amount.
The profits earned by the goverment due to the taxation and tribute paid by the people.
Historical Significance:Tax Revenue was significant to the development of many societies because it benefited them in many ways.The role of tax revenue allowed government authorities to control military services and control of the profits being earned by merchants.
use of science to achieve a practical purpose; applied science; engineering
Industry revolved around making cloth; includes cotton gathering, spinning, and weaving
1/10 tax on your income to help the church
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of large cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies.
Location that is not country like but city like.
Historical Significance: Urban centers were found in many early civilizations.The Roman Empire was considered as an urban center due to its advances in technology and economy.It was a urban center due to momunmental buildings such as the Panthenon and the Coliseum.