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Terms in this set (92)
Structures and functions of Respiratory system:
listed in order of air flow--
Upper respiratory tract...
processing incoming air, conducts air to/from lungs, vocalization, phonation
conducts air between atmosphere (external environment) and pharynx. warms, humidifies, cleans inspired air
1. nasal cavity
-boundary between external environment and nasal cavity
anterior nares (external nares)
-conducts air between external environment and respiratory portion of nasal cavity. vibrissae prevent entry of large contaminents
-conducts air between vestibule and pharynx
meatuses create turbulence to assist processing of inspired air
mucosa warms, humidifies, and cleans inspired air
-reduce weight of skull
help warm and humidify air
-boundary between nasal cavity and pharynx
posterior nares (internal nares)
conducts air between nasal cavity and larynx
-conducts air between posterior nares and oropharynx
-conducts air between nasopharynx and/or oral cavity and laryngopharynx
-conducts air between oropharynx and larynx
-immune protection of respiratory and digestive mucosa
conducts air between the pharynx and trachea
prevents food from entering lower airways
ciliary escalator removes contaminants
-flexes during swallowing to cover larynx and prevent food from entering lower airways
-conducts air between pharynx and vestibular folds
-slow contaminants dripping towards lower airways
vestibular folds (false vocal folds)
-conducts air between mucosal folds of larynx
ventricle (laryngeal ventricle)
-prevent contaminants from entering lower airways
produce vibrations when pulled together during expiration (vocalization)
vocal fold (or vocal cords)
-conducts air between vocal folds and trachea
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT...
conducts air to/from gas-exchange tissues of lungs
conducts air between the larynx and bronchi
ciliary escalator removes contaminants
conduct air between trachea and lungs
ciliary escalator removes contaminants
-conduct air to/from the lungs
primary bronchi (left and right)
-conduct air to/from the lobes of the lungs
secondary bronchi (3 on right, 2 on left)
-conduct air to/from the various bronchopulmonary segments of lungs
-smallest branches. conduct air to./from alveoli
exchange of gases between air and pulmonary blood.
surfactant lining alveoli prevents collapse of air space.
1. For purposes of study the Respiratory system may be divided into ________ and _________ tracts, or structural divisions. The _____ is composed of the nose, nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx. The lower respiratory tract consists of the _____, and all of the segments of the _____ and the _____.
upper respiratory tract
2. Cellular respiration produces _____ as a waste product, which must be removed before it accumulates to dangerously high levels.
3. The ______ is perforated by small openings that permit branches of the _____ nerve, responsible for the sense of smell.
4. Sometimes the ______ fail to unite completely and produce a condition called cleft palate. This causes a difficulty in the ability to _____ and _______.
swallowing and speaking
5. The _____ is located behind the nose, the ____ is located behind the mouth and the _____ extends from the hyoid bone to the esophagus.
6. _______ is a highly contagious disease transmitted by airborne mechanisms causing inflammatory lesions called tubercles. _____ is a malignancy of the pulmonary tissue that destroys the vital gas exchange in the tissues of the lungs.
7. ______ disease is a form of bacterial pneumonia caused by the infection of the organism Legionella pneumophila.
8. _________ is a common condition characterized by acute inflammation of the lungs. The vast majority of these infections result from Streptococcus bacteria.
9. Snoring is a common problem associated with a deviated septum. If this is transitioned to periods of complete cessation of breathing the pronounced snoring may be a symptom _____________.
10. Physicians now recognize the value of the lymphatic tissue in the body and why it is needed for the immune system. The surgery called ________ is no longer considered a first choice treatment option in routine cases of tonsillitis.
11. The space between the lungs occupied mainly by the esophagus, trachea, large blood vessels, and the heart is called the ____.
12. Because of the _______ shape of the ribs and the ___ of their attachment to the _____ , the thorax becomes larger when the chest is ______ and ____ when it is lowered.
13. The lungs perform 2 functions: _________ and ______________.
14. The primary bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels enter each lung through a slit on its medial surface called the _______.
15. The right lung has _____ lobes, the left lung has ____ lobes.
16. They are very thin walled, they lie in contact with blood capillaries, they are effective in exchanging carbon dioxide and oxygen. The are called: ________ . Inside each _______ is a coating called ______ which is a fluid that helps reduce surface tension.
17. What is the anatomical reason that aspirated foreign objects are often lodged into the right bronchus?
__Foreign objects are often lodged into the right bronchus because it is slightly larger and has a more vertical shape.
18. Embedded C shaped rings of cartilage make up most of the wall of the ______, which is also called the __________.
19. The __________ serves as the organ of voice production.
20. Name 2 reasons why a man's thyroid cartilage protrudes more than a woman's.
___A man's has an anterior laryngeal eminence known as the Adam's apple that is larger than a woman's. It also has less of a fat pad lying over it compared to a woman's.
Chapter 36-37 Ventilation and Gas Exchange / Transport
1. Air moves in and out of the lungs for the same basic reason that any fluid, a liquid or a gas, moves from one place to another; briefly, because it's ____________ in one place is different from that in the other place. Applying this concept to the human pulmonary airways, we can call this central idea the ________ .
primary principle of ventilation
2. When atmospheric pressure is greater than pressure within the lung, air flows down this gas _____ gradient. Then air moves from the atmosphere into the lungs. In other words, ______________ occurs.
3. Air moves down its pressure gradient, that is it always moves from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure. To achieve _____ , the higher __________ must be outside the body. To achieve _________ , the higher _______ must be inside the body's airways. I have included a optional reading article on the Black Board to explain Altitude Sickness.
4. It is helpful to understand where the diaphragm is situated in the process of breathing. During ______ the diaphragm contracts, increasing the lung volume. This increase in lung volume results in a decrease in ______, which causes the air to rush into the lungs. During ________, the diaphragm returns to an upward position.
5. An apparatus called a spirometer is used to measure the ____ of air exchanged in breathing. The volume of air exhaled normally after a typical inspiration is termed ____________.
6. As we discussed in previous lectures one of the last organs to fully develop in the prenatal stage is the lungs. One of the last components of the lung development is the surfactant. The deficiency of surfactant in premature infants is called ______________________.
hyaline membrane disease (HMD)
7. A premature infant may die due to respiratory exhaustion in an effort to maintain its normal ventilation. Ventilation difficulty and alveolar collapse collectively is called ____________.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome RDS
8. CPAP is the acronym for ___________.
Continous Positive Airway Pressure
9. The homeostasis of blood gases is maintained primarily by means of changes in __
10.The Respiratory Control Centers are the: ______________.
Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG),
Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG),
Pontine Respiratory Group (PRG),
and the Cerebral Cortex
11.Explain the cough reflex: ___
Occurs when foreign material is in the trachea or bronchi. The epiglottis and glottis reflexively close, and the expiratory muscles contract causing air pressure to increase in the lungs. The epiglottis and glottis open suddenly, resulting in an upward burst of air that removes the foreign material._________________
12.Explain the sneeze:
___It is stimulated by contaminants in the nasal cavity. A burst of air is directed through the nose and mouth, forcing the contaminants (and mucus) out of the respiratory tract. The sneeze droplets can travel more than 100 miles/hr and reach a 12 foot distance.___________________
13.Explain the hiccup: _
_An involuntary, spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm. When this contraction occurs, usually at inspiration, the glottis closes suddenly, producing the sound. They can last for extended periods and be disabling. They may be produced by irritation of the phrenic nerve or the sensory nerves in the stomach, or by direct injury or pressure on certain parts of the brain._____________________________
Increased breathing to meet an increased demand for O2 in the body. Increase in pulmonary ventilation. Also may require an increase in tidal volume, breathing frequency, or both.
Normal, quiet breathing. The need for O2 and CO2 exchange is being met and individual is not conscious of breathing pattern.
difficulty labored breathing. Can experience with restrictive lung disease. Person is aware of the breathing pattern and is uncomfortable.
Is dyspnea while lying down. May be relieved by sitting or standing up. It is common in people with heart disease.
Temporary cessation of breathing at the end of normal expiration. May occur during sleep or when swallowing.
16. Page 858 explains the Big Picture: How does the Nervous System regulate the Ventilation system?
Ventilation could not be adjusted to compensate for changes in the oxygen or carbon dioxide content of the internal environment without regulation of the nervous system. Nerves regulate the thoracic and abdominal muscles that drive breathing, as well as the smooth muscles that regulate air flow through the bronchial tree.
15.What is the mechanical difference between Asthma and Emphysema.
The mechanical difference is that Asthma is an occurring lung disease caused by chronic recurring inflammation of the mucous membranes while the smooth muscles are constricting the airways. Breathing is difficult because the airways are narrowed. However, Emphysema collapse of bronchioles is the rupturing and fusing of the alveoli which causes large irregular spaces in the lungs. The gas exchange units are destroyed making breathing difficult.
11. Explain Flail chest.
-Occurs when four or more ribs are fractured in two places which causes that part of the chest wall to collapse rather than expand during inspiration, and vice versa with expiration.
Chapter 16 Respiratory System Kinesiology Text
1. Which muscle originates on the xiphoid process, the ribs, and the lumbar vertebra and inserts on the central tendon?
2. Which muscles originate on the rib above and insert on the rib below and serve to elevate the ribs?
3. Quiet inspiration requires the use of which muscles as prime movers? Explain Quiet inspiration.
-This inspiration occurs when an individual is resting or sitting quietly. The diaphragm muscle is responsible for approximately 70% of quiet inspiration however the external intercostals are the prime movers.
4. What is the shape of the diaphragm muscle?
5. The most inferior tip of the sternum is called what?
6. Explain how the Heimlich maneuver helps to dislodge a foreign object.
-The quick forceful upward thrust forces the diaphragm upward and compresses the lungs, forcing the air and the foreign object out of the victims trachea.
7. Explain the term " air hunger."
-Forced inspiration that occurs when an individual is working very hard and needs a great deal of oxygen describes a state called "air hunger".
8. Explain the term " Valsalva's Maneuver."
-Closing your mouth and pinching your nose and attempting to exhale. It forces air into your Eustachian tubes and "clears your ears" but increases pressure in the eardrum.
9. The diaphragm muscle is innervated by the _____ nerve, this is functionally significant because the individual with a spinal cord injury at ______ or above cannot breathe unassisted and will be ventilator dependent.
10. You read in a trauma patient's chart that he has rib fractures and a collapsed lung. Another term for a collapsed lung is _____________.
-Occurs when the walls of the alveoli become distended and lose their elasticity due to chronic bronchial obstruction. This makes breathing difficult because there is bigger holes in the lungs due to burst alveoli.
13. Explain the mechanism of hiccups.
-Involuntary spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by rapid closure of the glottis which produces short, sharp, inspiratory sounds.
What is the function of the diaphragm?
the external intercostals?
the internal intercostals?
elevate ribs during inspiration
depress ribs during expiration
-A temporary condition common in runners. It is a localized, sharp pain, usually felt just below the rib cage and commonly caused by a cramp in the diaphragm.
14. Explain the term "stitch".
15. As a review: Why are the ribs called "true, false and floating."
-True ribs are connected directly to the sternum, false ribs are connected to true ribs (which are connected to the sternum), and floating ribs are connected to the spine and are not connected to the false or true ribs.
any infection in mucosa of the nose, pharynx, larynx can be called
upper respiration infection
laryngitis for people under 5
inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal cavity. usually caused by virus like the cold or flu
also can be caused by allergens
inflammation or infection of pharynx- viral invasion strep throat
same thing but for larynx
treated as an emergency because of potential airway obstruction
deviated septum=breathing impairment
acute inflammation of tracheobronchial tree. caused by infection
acute inflammation of lungs caused by bacteria, fungus, viruses or streptococcus pneumonia
broad term for progressive irreversible obstruction of expiratory airflow
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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A&P Chapters 38, 39, and 40
AnP Nervous System
Chapter 30 a&p Blood
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