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U.S History Chapter 28-31 Vocab
Terms in this set (88)
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
Policy of having the option of using either nuclear or conventional forces in responce to a threat
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
a direct telephone line for emergency use
Limited Test Ban Treaty
prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water
President Kennedy's plan aimed at improving the economy, fighting racial discrimination, and exploring space
a document giving an official instruction or command
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
Alliance for Progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
10 month investigation of the assassination of JFK
Lyndon B. Johnson
the US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism
Economic Opportunity Act
An economic legislation that was part of the Great Society. It created many social programs to help the poor.
1964, LBJ's policies of fighting poverty and racial injustice
Medicare and Medicaid
Great Society programs to have the government provide medical aid to the elderly (Medicare) and the poor (Medicaid).
Immigration Act of 1965
(LBJ) Established new immigration system that allowed more immigrants into the U.S.
time when Earl Warren led the Supreme Court and controversial decisions were made expanding civil rights
a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
racial segregation in schools declared unconstitutional
Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Southern Christian Leadership
1957 group founded by Martin Luther King Jr. to fight against segregation using nonviolent means
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
an organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in the civil rights movement
participate in an act of civil disobedience
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation.
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Fannie Lou Hamer
spokesperson for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
Black Muslim who argued for separation, not integration. He changed his views, but was assassinated in 1965.
Nation of Islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
a call to African Americans to unite, to recognize thier heritage, build a sense of community, define own goals, etc
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
Civil Rights Act of 1968
ended discrimination in housing
Programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
League for the Independence of Vietnam
The idea that if a nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
agreement that divided Vietnam into North and South
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnam non-Communist leader
The guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front
Ho Chi Minh Trail
a network of paths used by North Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong in South Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
Secretary of Defense under JFK & LBJ; expanded American involvement in Vietnam
The American Secretary of State during the Vietnam War
American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968
gasoline jelled with aluminum soaps
a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
a strategy used in Vietnam in which American forces sought Vietcong and North Vietnamese units to destroy them
The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support
the act of moving a load by drawing or pulling
new political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism
Free Speech Movement
led by Berkley college students who were fighting the restriction of free speech
someone who is against the Vietnam war
people who supported U.S. involvement in Vietnam
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
replace Robert McNamara as LBJ's Sec. of Defense in 1968 as McNamara becomes opposed to Vietnam War
John Kennedy's brother who served as attorney general and gradually embraced growing civil rights reform; later, as senator from New York, he made a run for the Democratic presidential nomination. An assassin ended his campaign on June 6, 1968.
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States
United States diplomat who served under President Nixon and President Ford (born in 1923)
policy of equipping and training of the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves
that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972
location of the killing of over 400 Vietnamese civilians by American soldiers
Kent State University
An Ohio university where National Guardsmen opened fire on students protesting the Vietnam War on May 4, 1970, wounding nine and killing four
Government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions
La Raza Unida
political party started by Jose Angel Gutierrez, worked for better housing and jobs, and also backed latino political candidates
American Indian Movement
led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
the movement aimed at equal rights for women
United States feminist (born in 1934)
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
anti-feminist who led the campaign to defeat the ERA claiming it would undermine the american family
a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture
Haven for young people seeking an alternative to the straight world in 1965. Was located in San Francisco
a British band that had an enormous influence on popular music in the 1960s
a free music festival that attracted more than 400,000 young people to a farm in upstate New York in August 1969
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