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Fundamentals Exam 2
Terms in this set (33)
Types of Diabetes Mellitus.
Type 1 & Type 2.
Age on onset of Type 1 Diabetes.
Usually childhood or adolescence, but can occur at any age.
Speed of onset of Type 1 Diabetes.
Sign and symptoms usually abrupt, but disease process may be present for several years.
Family history of Type 1 Diabetes.
Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes.
Approximately 5 to 10% of all types of diabetes.
Environmental factors of Type 1 Diabetes.
Etiology of Type 1 Diabetes.
Primary defect of Type 1 Diabetes.
Loss of pancreatic beta cells, due to Islet cell antibodies, which are often present at onset.
Endogenous insulin is absent.
Absent or minimal insulin production.
Nutritional status of Type 1 Diabetes.
Thin, normal, or obese.
Insulin levels of Type 1 Diabetes.
Reduced early in the disease and completely absent later.
Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes.
Polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, fatigue, weight loss without trying.
Treatment levels of Type 1 Diabetes.
Insulin replacement is mandatory, along with strict dietary control.
Blood glucose of Type 1 Diabetes.
Levels fluctuate widely in response to infection, exercise, and changes in caloric intake and insulin dose.
Body composition Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes.
Usually thin and undernourished at diagnosis.
Ketosis Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes.
Common, especially if insulin dosage is insufficient.
Prone at onset or during insulin deficiency.
Insulin therapy for Type 1 Diabetes.
Required for all.
Age of onset of Type 2 Diabetes.
Usually older than 40 years but can occur at any age.
Incidence is increasing in children.
Speed of onset of Type 2 Diabetes.
Gradual and insidious, may go undiagnosed for years.
Family history of Type 2 Diabetes.
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes.
90 to 95% of all types of diabetes.
Environmental factors of Type 2 Diabetes.
Obesity, lack os exercise.
Etiology of Type 2 Diabetes.
Unknown—but there is a strong familial association, suggesting heredity is a risk factor.
Primary defect of Type 2 Diabetes.
Insulin resistance, decreased insulin production over time, alterations in the production of adipokines, and inappropriate insulin secretion.
Islet cell antibodies are absent.
Endogenous insulin is initially increased in response to insulin resistance. Secretion diminishes over time.
Nutritional status of Type 2 Diabetes.
Frequently overweight or obese. May be normal.
Insulin levels of Type 2 Diabetes.
Levels may be low (indicating deficiency), normal, or high (indicating resistance).
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.
May be asymptomatic initially. Frequently none. Fatigue, recurrent infections. May also experience polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia.
Treatment levels of Type 2 Diabetes.
Treat with an oral antidiabetic or non-insulin injectable agent and/or insulin, but always in combination with a reduced-calorie diet and appropriate exercise.
Blood glucose of Type 2 Diabetes.
Levels are generally more stable than in type 1 diabetes.
Body composition Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.
Ketosis Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.
Resistant except during infection or stress.
Insulin therapy for Type 2 Diabetes.
Required for some. Disease is progressive and insulin treatment may need to be added to treatment regimen.
Essential for both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
Vascular and neurologic complications.
Frequent for both type 1 and 2 diabetes.
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