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Blind Spot

A spot in our visual field where the optic nerve goes through a layer of receptor cells on its way back toward the brain creating a lack of sensory receptors in the eye at that location

Carpentered world theory

A theory that suggests that people are used to seeing things that are rectangular in shape, and unconsciously expect things to have square corners


classifying objects on the basis of perceived similarities and attach labels to those classifications


a term denoting all mental processes we use to transform sensory input into knowledge

dialectical thinking

tendency to accept what seem to be contradictions in thought or beliefs

everyday congnition

cognitive skills and abilities that are used in everyday functioning that appear to develop without formal education

front-horizontal foreshortening theory

Theory of perception that suggests that we interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance

hindsight bias

The process of adjusting their memory for something after they find out the true outcome

multicultural studies

studies that examine cross-ethnic group differences within a country

optical illusions

a discrepancy between how an object looks and what it actually is


The process of gathering information about the world through our senses

positive logical determinism

tendency to see contradictions as mutully exclusive categories

problem solving

the process by which we attempt to discover ways of achieving goals that do not seem readily attainable


the feelings that result from excitation of the sensory receptors such as touch, taste, smell, sight, or hearing

serial position effect

the finding that people remember soemthing better if its either the first of the last item on a list

Sterotype threat

the threat that others judgements or ones own action will negatively stereotype one in a domain

symbolizing three dimensions in two

Theory that people in western cultures focus more on representations on paper than do other cultures and in particular spend more time learning to interpret pictures

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