Government Chapter 4: Voting and Voting Rights
Terms in this set (43)
the right to vote
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (means approximately the same thing as suffrage)
all those eligible to vote
a person living in a state for only a short time, without legal residence.
a procedure of voter identification intended to prevent fraudulent voting.
renewing the lists of eligible voters and removing names of people no longer eligible to vote
list of all registered voters in each precinct
a person's ability to read and write
a special tax, demanded by states, as a condition of voting
redrawing of district lines in order to favor a certain party; done by redistricting, racially, etc.
a court order that forces of limits the performance of some act by a private individual or by a public official
the prior approval by the Justice Department of changes to or new election laws by certain states
the even number years between presidential elections
one's own influence or effectiveness on politics
the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions
measurable differences between the partisan choices of mean and women today
loyalty of people to a political party
the practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election
voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same elections
the third party in American Political used to describe people with no certain party affiliation
1. The Gradual Elimination of Voting Restrictions - restrictions based on religion, property ownership, tax payment, race, or sex were eliminated.
2. Growing Federal Control Over Voting - a significant share of the States' power over suffrage has gradually been assumed by the federal government
Describe two long-term trends that have characterized the history of suffrage in the United States.
1.) Early 1800's - eliminates voting restriction based on religion, property ownership, and tax payment.
2.) After Civil War - Prohibited restrictions based on race. 15th Amendment gave African Americans right to vote.
3.) Around 1920 - prohibits voting restriction based on sex. 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.
4.) The 1960's - secured African Americans a full role in the electoral process in all states. Amendments 23 and 24 allowed voting in Washington, D.C. and outlawed the poll tax.
5.) 1971 - Amendment 26 set the national minimum voting age at 18.
Describe five distinct stages in the growth of the American electorate.
all citizens who are 18 and older and are eligible to vote
Who exercises the franchise?
1.) Any person allowed to vote is able to vote in all elections
2.) No one can be deprived the right to vote because of race
3.) No one can be deprived the right to vote because of sex
4.) No state can require voting taxes
5.) No state can deprive someone 18 and older the right to vote
What restrictions does the constitution place on the States in setting suffrage qualifications?
to identify voters in terms of their party preference, and thus, their eligibility to take part in closed primaries.
For what reason do most states require voter registartion?
The motor voter law requires every state to allow all eligible citizens to register to vote when they apply for or renew a driver's license, provide for voter registration by mail, and make registration forms available at all public government organizations. Its purpose is to encourage citizens to vote.
What is the Motor Voter Law? What is its purpose?
(a) to keep track of those who are still eligible to vote in elections
(b) purging helps to prevent poll books from becoming clogged with names of people who are no longer eligible to vote (get rid of names of people who moved, died, etc.)
(a) Why do election officials keep poll books? (b) Why is it a good idea to purge them every few years?
It was first used in 1889 in the south as a way to discourage African Americans from voting. This helped to make rich, white males the majority voters.
How was the poll tax used as a voting qualification?
It is the practice of drawing up electoral district lines to limit the voting strength of a particular group. It can be done racially, so that African American citizens voting strenght would be weakend.
What is gerrymandering? What were other devices used to disenfranchise African Americans?
That was the main way that new laws were inforced to make Southern leaders comply with them.
What part do injunctions play in the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
Pre-approval of local election laws for states with greater than 50% voter turnout. A state can bail out if the state can show the United States District Court in Washington, D.C. that it has not applied any voting procedures in a discriminary way for atleast 10 years.
What is preclearance? How can a state bail out of the preclearance provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
(a) The Civil Rights Act of 1957, The Civil Rights Act of 1964, The Voting Rights Act of 1965, and Amendments made to the Voting Rights Act in 1970, 1975, 1982, and 1992.
(b) In 1957 the civil rights commission was created, in 1964 discrimination was outlawed and injunctions were encouraged. In 1965 poll taxes were outlawed and the voting rights we have today were established. In 1970 the Voting Rights Act extended for 5 years, in 1975 it was extended for 7 more years, in 1982 the basic features of the act extended for 25 years, and in 1992 the law's language minority provisions were revised.
(a) Identify the major civil rights laws enacted since 1950. (b) Describe voting rights provisions in these laws.
A person who has no sense of political efficacy will likely not care about voting and not vote; therefore, a person with a sense of political efficacy will likely vote.
How does a person's sense of political efficacy affect his or her voting behavior?
The difference between the political opinions or political behavior of men and women
What is the gender gap?
A person who has a party identification is going to be loyal to one party, so they will most likely straight-ticket vote for that party.
How are party identification and straight-ticket voting related?
1.) The results of particular elections
2.) The field of survey research
3.) Studies of political socialization
List three sociological factors that affect voting behavior.
New Jersey: Philip D. Murphy - Democrat - 13%
Virginia: Ralph Northam - Democrat - 9%
Who won Governorship in NJ and VA? (Which party were they in and how much did they win by)
Lt. Governor: Justin Fairfax - Democrat
Attorney General: Mark Hering - Democrat
In Virginia, who also won Lt. Governor and Attorney General in the state race/which party?
His decision to abandon his 2018 re-election campaign in Arizona is a problem. He doesn't agree with Donald Trump anad the direction fo the Republican party views.
Why is Jeff Flake important?
He feels the same as Jeff Flake in his re-election in Pennsylvania.
Why is Charlie Dent important?
The head investigator for the Russian influence on the 2016 election. He is the the former director fo the FBI.
Who is Robert Mueller? Why is he important?
He was part of Trump's campaign team in 2016. He was campaign manager from June to August 2016. He is being prosecuted on charges of tax fraud and money laundering.
Who is Paul Manafort? Why is he important?
Who is Robert Mueller? Why is he important?
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