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3500LRC - Weeks 5 - 10
Terms in this set (42)
What is the Good For Kids Program?
- Australia's largest ever program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for children aged up to 15 years.
- Operates in HNE area.
- Brings together a variety of agencies, community organisations and industry to explore the effectiveness of a range of intervention strategies aimed at making it easier for kids to be active and to eat well. The program results will help to determine best practice in the area of childhood obesity prevention.
What are the target behaviours for GFK?
- Sugary drink consumption
- Consumption of non-core foods
- Time spent on small-screen entertainment
- Physical activity
- Fruit and veg consumption
What are the goals of the GFK program?
o Prevent obesity in kids ages 0-15 years in HNE
o Build evidence for policy and best practice in NSW
What is the Good for Kids Program impact equation?
What is the GFK model of program implementation?
Program Impact = Effectiveness X Reach X Implementation
- Examining the impact of the program/intervention and what results were generated
- Often where the greatest research investment occurs
- Effective interventions may not be suitable for scaling up to a population level
- GFK programs selected on best available evidence and stakeholder input
- Maximise population exposure
- GFK settings are selected based on ensuring exposure to all HNE kids or disadvantaged groups
- Ensuring that programs are implemented in the way they were intended to work
- Required to translate the benefits of effective programs to the community
- In a settings based approach, implementation is often the responsibility of a partner organisation(s) due to scope
- Draws heavily on clinical practice change literature
- How to encourage program implementation by partner organisations is an under studied aspect of research translation in public health
- GFK Strategies based on clinical practice change theory and empircal evidence
What underpins our approaches to substance abuse treatment?
- Harm minimisation and reduction
What models or approaches to treatment are used?
- Stages of change
- Motivational interviewing
Name some models of treatment
- Behavioural approaches
- Psychoanalytic view
- Solution focused therapy
What is addiction?
- Chronic, relapsing condition with low rate of successful cessation
- Hard to treat completely
- Treatment usually only sought after crisis
- Can lead to poor choices in other life areas
Give an example of secondary prevention in terms of smoking cessation?
- Nicotine Replacement Therapy
What are the two main approaches to Secondary prevention in smoking?
- Public health / legislative approaches
- Clinical prevention strategies
Give some examples of public health/legislative approaches to smoking prevention?
- Taxation on tobacco
- Laws restricting the sale, packaging, availability of cigarettes
- Restrictions on tobacco advertising
- Public health services such as Quitline
Give some examples of clinical prevention strategies?
- Pharmacotherapies (stillnox, zyban)
- Behavioural therapies (aversion therapies, motivational interviewing, self-management strategies)
- Other therapies such as hypnosis, combining multiple therapies
Which people are most at risk of smoking?
- Mentally ill
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders
- Homeless people
- Imprisoned people
- People living in rural/remote areas
- Low SES, unemployed
- 17 year olds
What is psycho-oncology?
- Clinical field intersecting psychology and oncology (cancer)
- Concerned with the effects of cancer on a person's psychological health
- Concerned with social/behavioural factors that may influence the disease experience
What are some of the psycho-social problems caused by cancer?
- Physical: Pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, disfigurement, fertility/sexuality issues
- Social: Changes in relationships, roles & responsibilities
- Emotional: loss/grief, not coping, new and intense emotions
- Lifestyle: energy, independence
What are some of the psychological distresses caused by cancer?
- Anxiety (phobias, GAD, panic attacks)
- Mood disorders (depression, bipolar)
- Adjustment disorders
- Psychosis, Delirium
What are the two types of factors that impact on distress?
Medical and Individual Factors
What are some medical factors that exacerbate distress? Give an example of each.
- Poor quality of health (pain, fatigue, physical incapacities/disability)
- Reduced treatment options (inoperable tumours, metastasis)
- High risk of recurrence (skin cancers, melanoma)
What are some individual factors that exacerbate distress?
- Younger age of diagnosis (limited coping skills)
- Substance abuse problems (multiple stressors, impact treatment efficacy)
- Limited availability of social support (increased stress levels)
Name some coping mechanisms
- Denial (either adaptive or maladaptive)
- Fighting Spirit (overcoming problems)
- Acceptance (functional adjustment, faith)
Name some psychological interventions useful in coping with cancer:
- Problem solving skills training
- Supportive expressive therapy
- Dignity therapy
- Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
- Solution Focused Brief Therapy
Factors which influence a person's reaction to bereavement:
- How the loss occurred
- Social network and support
- Relationship to the person passed
- Circumstances surrounding the death (accident, terminal illness)
- Personality of the bereaved person
- Age of the bereaved person
- Life experiences
What typifies the grief responses in kids aged 3-5?
- They are aware of death, but finality of death a difficult concept
- Literally think someone has gone into the sky or up to heaven
What typifies the grief responses in kids aged 5-8?
- May deny anything is wrong and carry on as before
- Inner turmoil
- Hide tears, fears loss of control, being different at school
- May feel guilt if sibling dies
What typifies grief responses in kids ages 8-12?
- Have an adult concept of death
- Few get the opportunity to share their feelings, longing, grief
- Tendency towards fearfulness, hypochondriasis
What is the current pain theory?
Unpleasant physical or emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Pain can be acute or chronic.
What is acute pain?
Result of physical injury, usually heals within 3 months
What is chronic pain?
Ongoing, persistent pain that extends beyond the expected time of healing.
What sort of outcomes might be important to assess in treatment for pain?
- Coping Strategies
Describe coping strategies as a pain treatment outcome measure?
- Social support
- Combining different strategies (medication and psychotherapies to manage pain)
- Physical activity
- Psychotherapies such as learning relaxation techniques
Describe disability as an outcome measure for pain?
- Is the person going to be able to return to work?
- How is their mobility affected?
- Will they regain function after healing?
Why is it important to look at these two outcomes?
- Manages patient expectations of treatment impact (this influences efficacy of treatments too)
- Pain is a subjective experience, so outcomes will depend on the individual
- Aids in determining patient needs for most effective treatment/management of pain
What is Moseley's snake bite story?
- Felt a scratch on leg while hiking, kept hiking. Turns out had gotten bitten by a brown snake, endured a painful and slow recovery. 6 months later felt another scratch, felt intense pain and got sick, panicked. Turned out it was only a stick
What does Moseley's story tell us about pain?
- Influence of the brain on pain experience
- Memory, emotions and experiences influence how we perceive/react to pain
- Danger signals are neither necessary or sufficient for pain
- Possible to be hurt and not feel pain and vice versa
- Top-down process of pain: our brain tells us how to feel it
What are the 3 levels of risk factors for development of mental disorders?
- Individual (low self esteem, poor coping skills)
- Social (abuse, violence, loss)
- Structural (poverty, homelessness, unemployment)
What are the risk factors for the development of mental disorders in childhood?
- Low birth weight
- Maternal substance abuse
- Learning problems (attention deficits, social incompetence, reading disabilities)
- Family problems (parental mental illness, substance abuse, family conflict)
What are the risk factors for the development of mental disorders in adolescence & adulthood?
- Excessive substance use
- Experience of adversity (Low SES, bereavement)
- Physical health problems (chronic pain, illness, insomnia)
- Violence + abuse (child abuse, neglect, elder abuse, exposure to trauma, aggression, domestic violence)
How can mental health be promoted ?
- Social determinants (structural, social, individual)
- Broad levels of action, targeted levels
- Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention
- Approaches can be used in a wide range of settings
What is mental health promotion about?
- Enhancing social and emotional well-being and quality of life.
- Can be used in a range of settings to reach target populations.
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