Rome

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Terms in this set (...)

Representative Democracy
A government in which the people elect people to represent them in the legislative process of governing as opposed to directly voting on issues themselves like the Athenians did.
Assembly
Groups of citizens who acted as legislators in the early Roman Republic.
Patricians
The elite ruling class in the ancient Roman World.
Plebeians
The lower class or a commoner in the ancient Roman World
Consul
in the ancient Roman Republic one of the two annually elected chief magistrates who jointly ruled the republic. Chosen from the Senate to rule for 1 year. (executive branch)
Aqueducts
A pipeline or a channel built to carry water to cities
Inflation
The devaluation of currency
Triumvirate
A group of three leaders sharing control over the Roman Republic
Civil War
An internal war in a nation or an empire
Martyr
A person in the Roman Empire who was killed for following Jesus Christ. Usually by burning at the stake, stoning, or crucifixion.
Romulus and Remus
The legendary twin brothers who were said to have founded the city of Rome as after having been raised by a she wolf
Hannibal
The skillful Carthaginian general who waged war against the Romans during the Punic Wars before he was eventually defeated by the Roman General Scipio
Scipio Africanus
The Roman General who was finally able to defeat Hannibal and the Carthaginian Empire at the Battle of Zama in North Africa during the 2nd Punic War 202bc
Virgil
Rome's greatest poet who was responsible for the great national epic called the Aeneid which was similar to Homer's great Greek Epics the Iliad and the Odyssey (1st century BC)
Julius Caesar
100-44 bc A Roman General, Senator, and Consul who became the leading member of the 1st Triumvirate, started a civil war, was declared Roman dictator for life before he was assassinated on the Ides of March 44 by Roman Senators who believed he was tearing down the Republic.
Cicero
100 bc to 43 bc
A Roman Statesman, lawyer, scholar, and writer who tried in vain to hold up the principals of the republic as Julius Caesar and others tore them down.
Octavian (Augustus Caesar)
The grandnephew and adopted some of Julius Caesar, who became the founder of the Roman Empire and ruled it from 27 BC until his death in AD 14
Mark Antony and Cleopatra
A Roman politician and general who teamed up with Octavian to transform the Republic into an empire. His alliance and relationship with Cleopatra was used against him by Octavian (his former ally) in order to eliminate him so Octavian could have complete control in Rome.
Jesus
A Jewish man who was believed by some to be the long prophesied messiah. He claimed to be the Son of God and God himself who was to be sacrificed for the sin of the world. He was crucified by the Romans and believed by some to have risen on the third day. This marks the beginning of the Christian faith.
Disciples/Apostles
The 12 jewish men who followed Jesus during his lifetime/who spread the gospel (good news) of his crucifixion and and resurrection. 11 of them were the same. One was a disciple and not an apostle and one was an apostle and not a disciple.
Paul
A former persecutor of Christians who became perhaps the most influential apostle of Christianity. Responsible for spreading Christianity to the non Jewish (gentile) world. He wrote letters to new churches that became books in the New Testament.
Diocletian
Roman Emperor from AD 284-305 who
-stablized the empire
-divided the rule of Rome in 4 (2 caesars and 2 augustus)
-persecuted Christians
-The only Roman Emp. to retire
Constantine
A Roman Emperor who
-reunites the empire the Diocletian divided.
-fights back barbarians invasions
-issues the Edict of Milan in AD 313 which makes Christianity legal
-builds an Eastern Capital (Constantinople) at Byzantium
Roman Republic
509 BC - 27 BC Time period after the rule of kings in Rome and before the rule of Emperors, when Rome was ruled by the Senate and other assemblies.
Roman Empire
27 BC- AD 476 Time period in Rome's history when Rome was Ruled by an Emperor and not the Senate.
Roman Mythology
The body of traditional stories about ancient Rome's origins and religious system. A large portion of which was adopted from Greek traditional mythology. The planets of our solar system are named after Roman gods and goddesses.
Alps
A mountain range north of the Italian Peninsula that was a natural barrier to entering the Empire from north. Hannibal tried to invade from the North and lost many of his troops and all but one of his war elephants during the 2nd Punic War.
Pantheon
A Roman temple that was dedicated to the worship of every or all (Pan) gods (Theos). In the later years of the empire it is converted to a Christian church.
Forum
The center of the city of Rome that was the location to most important governmental buildings.
Senate
The most important institution in the republican system of Rome. The 200 members were all patricians and were appointed for life.
12 Tables
The core of Roman law that was to be adhered to by both patrician and plebeian and to be enforced by the consuls of Rome.
Punic Wars
a series of wars between Carthage and Rome from 264 BC - 146 BC in which the expanding Roman world met the powerful Carthaginians who had been the most dominant power in the western Med. Rome was eventually successful and victorious in what had most likely been the largest war in the history of the world up to that point.
Colosseum
The largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire. Built in the 1st century AD, it could hold more than 50,000 people and host mock sea battles, gladiator combats, executions, animal hunts, re-enactments, dramas, and other public spectacles.
Pax Romana
Time period of peace and prosperity in the Roman empire ushered in by the Rule of Emperor Augustus Caesar (Octavian) in 27bc that lasted roughly 200 hundred years until c AD 180.
Romance Languages
Largely European languages that originate from the Roman language of Latin.
Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, French, and Italian among others.
Christianity
The religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Messiah, sent by God, that Jesus, by dying and rising from the dead, made up for the sin of Adam and thus redeemed the world, allowing all who believe in him to enter heaven.
New Testament
The second part of the Christian Bible. Christians believe that it records a"new covenant," or "new testament," that fulfills and completes God's "old covenant" with the Hebrews, described in the Old Testament.
Edict of Milan
A decree by Roman Emperor Constantine in AD 313 that Christianity as well as other faiths were going to be permitted in the Empire.