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Arts and Humanities
The Interpersonal Communication Book - Glossary of Terms
Glossary of terms.
Terms in this set (102)
The process by which your culture is modified or changed through contact with or exposure to another culture.
The process by which a listener expresses his or her understanding of the speaker's total message, including the verbal and nonverbal communication, the thoughts, and the feelings.
Nonverbal behaviors that, when engaged in either in private or in public, serve some kind of need and occur in their entirety - for example, scratching your head until the itch is relieved.
In verbal and nonverbal communications, the extent to which communicators share the same system of signals; this sharing makes effective communication possible.
Movements of the facial area that convey emotional meaning such as anger, fear, or surprise.
Behaviors designed to increase interpersonal attractiveness.
The communication of support and approval.
Discrimination or prejudice based on age.
The illogical assumption that all can be known or said about a given person, issue, object, or event.
Body movements you make in response to your current interactions; for example, crossing your arms over your chest when someone unpleasant approaches or moving closer to someone you like.
Placing the speaker in a specific role for a specific purpose and asking that he or she assume the perspective of this specific role; for example, "As a professor of communication, what would you say is . . .?"
The condition in which a message may be interpreted as having more than one meaning.
A characteristic of culture referring to the degree to which members of a culture feel comfortable with ambiguity and uncertainty.
A generally unproductive emotion of strong feelings of displeasure, annoyance, or hostility.
The methods and techniques by which anger is controlled and managed.
An expression of regret or sorrow for having done what you did or for what happened.
Willingness to argue for your point of view, to speak your mind. Distinguished from verbal aggressiveness.
A form of nonverbal communication involving the selection and arrangement of objects, for example, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, tattoos, and furniture.
A willingness to stand up for your rights but with respect for the rights of others.
A process of message distortion in which messages are reworked to conform to your own attitudes, prejudices, needs, and values.
The process of responding to a stimulus or stimuli; usually some consciousness of responding is implied.
A predisposition to respond for or against an object, person, or position.
The process by which one individual in emotionally drawn to another and finds that person satisfying to be with.
The theory that people develop relationships on the basis of attractiveness, proximity, and similarity.
Degree of physical appeal and/or pleasantness in personality.
The process of assigning causation or motivation to a person's behavior.
A theory concerned with the process of assigning causation or motivation to a person's behavior.
An unproductive interpersonal conflict strategy in which a person takes mental or physical flight from the actual conflict.
Responses that a listener makes to a speaker while the speaker is speaking but which do not ask for the speaking role; for example, interjections such as "I understand" or "You said what?"
Barriers to Intercultural Communication
Physical or psychological factors that prevent or hinder effective communication.
Similarity in the behavior, usually nonverbal (such as postural stance or facial expressions), of two persons; generally taken as an indicator of liking.
Confidence in the existence or truth of something; conviction.
An unproductive interpersonal conflict strategy in which one person hits at a psychological or emotion level at which the other person cannot withstand the blow.
An unproductive interpersonal conflict strategy in which we attribute the cause of the conflict to the other person or devote our energies to discovering who is the cause and avoid talking about the issues causing the conflict.
Emotions that are combinations of the primary emotions; for example, disappointment is a blend of surprise and sadness.
A marker that divides one person's territory from another's - for example, a fence.
In social penetration theory, the number of topics about which individuals in a relationship communicate.
A type of miscommunication that occurs when the speaker and listener (1) use different words but give them the same meaning or (2) use the same words but give them different meanings.
The study of the persuasive power of computer communication.
A marker or item that is placed in a territory to reserve it for a specific person - for example, a sweater thrown over a library chair to signal that the chair is taken.
An attitude of closed-mindedness that creates defensiveness among communicators. Opposed to provisionalism.
The vehicle of medium through which signals are sent; for example, the vocal-auditory channel.
Small behaviors we enjoy receiving from others, especially from our relational partner - for example, a kiss before the partner leaves for work.
The study of the communicative nature of time, how a person's or culture's treatment of time reveals something about the person or culture; often divided into psychological and cultural time.
Polite ignoring of others (after a brief sign of awareness) so as not to invade their privacy.
An expression whose overuse calls attention to itself.
An unwillingness to receive certain communication messages.
A set of symbols used to translate a message from one form to another.
Cognitive Labeling Theory
A theory of emotions which holds that you experience emotions according to the following steps: (1) An event occurs. (2) You respond physiologically. (3) You interpret this arousal - that is, you decide what emotion you're experiencing, and (4) you experience the emotion.
A cultural orientation in which the group's goals rather than the individual's are given greater importance and in which, for example, benevolence, tradition, and conformity are given special emphasis. Opposed to individualist orientation.
The use of color to communicate different meanings; each culture seems to define the meanings colors communicate somewhat differently.
(1) The process or act of communicating; (2) the actual message or messages sent and received; (3) the study of the processes involved in the sending and receiving of messages.
Fear or anxiety about communicating; usually identified as either trait apprehension (apprehensiveness in all communication situations) or state apprehension (apprehensiveness in specific communication situations).
The study of communication, particularly the subsection concerned with human communication.
In interpersonal communication, knowledge about communication and the ability to engage in communication effectively. "Language competence" is a speaker's ability to use the language; it is a knowledge of the elements and rules of the language.
A principle of attraction holding that you are attracted to people whose qualities you do not possess or you wish to possess, and to people who are opposite or different from yourself. Opposed to similarity.
A relationship in which the behavior of one person serves as the stimulus for the complementary behavior of the other; in complementary relationships, behavioral differences are maximized.
Behaviors designed to gain the agreement of others, to influence or persuade others to do as you wish.
Behaviors directed at resisting the persuasive attempts of others.
Communication between two or more people that takes place through a computer; for example, e-mail or instant messaging.
A quality of interpersonal effectiveness; a comfortable, at-ease feeling in interpersonal communication situations.
A communication pattern that acknowledges another person's presence and indicates an acceptance of this person, this person's definition of self, and the relationship as defined or viewed by this person. Opposed to rejection and disconfirmation.
A disagreement or difference of opinion; a form of competition in which one person tries to bring a rival to surrender; a situation in which one person's behaviors are directed at preventing something or at interfering with or harming another individual.
The feeling or emotional aspect of meaning, generally viewed as consisting of the evaluative (for example, good-bad), potency (strong-weak), and activity (fast-slow) dimensions. Opposed to denotation.
A process that influences you to maintain balance in your perceptions of messages or people; a process that causes you to see what you expect to see and to be uncomfortable when your perceptions run contrary to expectations.
The first stage in relationship development; consists of "perceptual contact" (you see or hear the person) and "interactional contact" (you talk with the person).
Content and Relationship Dimensions
Two aspects to which messages may refer: the world external to both speaker and listener (content) and the connections existing between the individuals who are interacting (relationship).
The physical, psychological, social, and temporal environment in which communication takes place.
Two-person communication that usually follows five stages: opening, feedforward, business, feedback, and closing.
The management of the way in which messages are exchanged in conversation.
Principles that are followed in conversation to ensure that the goal of the conversation is achieved.
The process of passing the speaker and listener roles during conversation.
An interpersonal process by which individuals work together for a common end; the pooling of efforts to produce a mutually desired outcome. In conversation, an implicit agreement between speaker and listener to work together for mutual comprehension.
The perception of believability generally considered to consist of perceptions of competence, character, and charisma.
Techniques by which you seek to establish your competence, character, and charisma.
The process of logically evaluating reasons and evidence and reaching a judgement on the basis of this analysis.
The process by which a person's culture is given up and he or she takes on the values and beliefs of another culture; as when, for example, an immigrant gives up his or her native culture to become a member of the new adopted culture.
Signs that communicate a person's cultural identification, such as clothing or religious jewelry.
Cultural Display Rules
Rules that identify what are an what are not appropriate forms of expression for members of the culture.
Standards and customs that are specific to a given culture.
An attitude and way of behaving in which you're aware of, have a respect for, and acknowledge cultural differences.
The meanings given to the ways time is treated in a particular culture.
The relatively specialized elements of the lifestyle of a group of people that are passed on from one generation to the next through communication, not through genes.
The reactions we experience at being in a culture very different from our own or from what we are used to.
An extensional device used to emphasize the notion of constant change and symbolized by a subscript.
Taking a message in one form (for example, sound waves) and translating it into another form (for example, nerve impulses) from which meaning can be formulated. In human communication the decoder is the auditory mechanism; in electronic communication the decoder is, for example, the telephone earpiece.
An attitude of an individual or an atmosphere in a group characterized by threats, fear, and domination; messages evidencing evaluation, control, strategy, neutrality, superiority, and certainty are thought to lead to defensiveness. Opposed to supportiveness.
Process by which you ignore or refuse to acknowledge your emotions to yourself or to others; one of the obstacles to the expression of emotion.
The objective or descriptive meaning of a work; the meaning you'd find in a dictionary. Opposed to connotation.
A condition in which the breadth and depth of a relationship decrease.
In social penetration theory, the degree to which the inner personality - the inner core of an individual - is penetrated in interpersonal interaction.
A form of communication in which each person is both speaker and listener; communication characterized by involvement, concern, and respect for the other person. Opposed to monologue.
Speech in which the speaker's intentions are stated clearly and directly.
Statement that asks the listener to receive what you say without its reflecting negatively on you.
Process by which a person ignores or denies the right of another individual even to define himself or herself. Opposed to rejection and confirmation.
Rules or customs (of a culture or an organization) that govern what is and what is not permissible emotional communication.
Communication from the higher levels of a hierarchy to the lower levels - for example, messages sent by managers to workers or from deans to faculty members.
An awareness on the part of the participants that an interpersonal relationship or pairing exists between them; distinguished from situations in which two individuals are together but do not see themselves as a unit or twosome.
The tendency for the behaviors of one person to stimulate similar behaviors in the other interactant; often used to refer to the tendency for one person's self-disclosures to prompt the other also to self-disclose.
A condition in which an individual is unable to appropriately read the nonverbal messages of others or to communicate his or her own meanings nonverbally.
A marker that identifies an item as belonging to specific person - for example, a nameplate on a desk or initials on an attaché case.
A word ending in -ing is an example of a:
" The right to be forgotten" means you don't have to worry aboutcontent that your contribute to social media.
In American culture, deliberate non-verbal behaviors with a very precise meaning, used to convey words that aren't spoken (such as putting your hand over your ear to signify "I can't hear you") are called:
20. When funds are set aside from a budget account, pursuant to a certain budget request, what term describes these funds?
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