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Innervates the lateral rectus muscle

Cranial nerve VI

Innervates the superior oblique muscle

Cranial nerve IV

Innervates superior, inferior, and medial rectus and inferior oblique muscles

Cranial nerve III

-Red glow that appears to fill the person's pupil when first visualized through the opthalmoscope
-Light reflecting from the retina

Red reflex

Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic movement of the eyeball


What size should the pupil be?

Round & regular

Best vision is considered

Fine central vision

-Acuteness or clearness of vision
-Dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain
-Uses a Snellen chart
-Described as 20/20 vision

Visual Acuity

Alphabet chart most commonly used and is an accurate measure of visual acuity

Snellen Eye Chart

Health history questions to be asked regarding eyes

-Vision difficulty (decreased acuity, blurring, blind spots)
-Strabismus, Diplopia
-Redness, Swelling
-Watering, discharge
-History of ocular problems
-Use of glasses and/or contact lenses
-Self-care behaviors

-Disparity of the eye axes
-Squint, crossed eye


Double vision


What eternal eye structures should be inspected?

-General appearance of the eye
-Eyelids & lashes
-Conjunctiva and sclera
-Eversion of the upper lid
-Lacrimal apparatus

What anterior eye structures should be inspected?

-Cornea & lens
-Iris & Pupil

When inspecting the Iris & Pupil what should you look for

-Size & shape
-Pupillary light reflex

The cornea reflex is mediated by cranial nerves

V and VII

What are the retinal structures viewed through the ophthalmoscope

-Optic Disc
-Retinal vessels
-General background

The examiner records "positive consensual light reflex." This is:

The simultaneous constriction of the other pupil when one eye is exposed to bright light

Several changes occur in the eye with the aging process. The thickening and yellowing of the lens is referred to as:

Senile cataract

The cover test is used to assess for:

Muscle weakness

The six muscles that control eye movement are innervated by cranial nerves:


A person is known to be blind in the left eye. What happens to the pupils when the right eye is illuminated by a penlight beam?

Both pupils constrict

One cause of visual impairment in aging adults is:


Documentation of an eye examination can include the term PERRLA. What does this mean?

P: Pupils
E: Equal
R: Round
R: React (to)
L: Light (and)
A: Accommodation

Is the question appropriate for the aging adult:
"Do your eyes seem excessively moist?"

-Decreased tear production may occur with aging

Would a patient that answers yes to, "Do spots move in front of your eyes" elicit a medical emergency?

-Refer immediately

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