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98 terms

Exam 1 Study guide- Ch 3,4,5

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nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane
three main regions of most cells, from deep to superficial
plasma membrane
phospholipid bi-layer with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties; embedded with proteins, carbohydrates and cholesterols (anatomy)
plasma membrane
barrier for cellular contents; functions as selective barrier for cell (physiology)
cholesterols
in plasma membrane, maintain fluidity of cell wall; solid at normal body temp, but fluid at decreased body temp
cytoskeleton
in plasma membrane, maintains general structure of the cell
carbohydrates
in plasma membrane, glycocalyx leaves a somewhat sticky surface to aid in cell recognition process
proteins
in plasma membrane, aid in passage into and out of cell; integral span through membrane, peripheral do not
ion channels
proteins in membrane that span it and allow passage into and out of cell
carriers
proteins in membrane that transport structures that would otherwise be impermeable to cell membrane
receptors
proteins in membrane that are cell recognition sites; insulin ______ sites bind the hormone insulin
identification markers
proteins in membrane that are used in antibody-antigen recognition
tissue
4 types: epithelium, muscle, connective, nervous
nervous tissue
used for internal communication; found in brain, spinal cord, and nerves
muscle tissue
contracts to cause movement; found attached to bone, in heart, and in hollow organ walls
epithelial tissue
forms boundaries betweens different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters; AVASCULAR and have own nerves; regenerate quickly; found in lining of GI tract organs and other hollow organs and on skin surface
connective tissue
supports, protects, binds other tissues together; most abundant tissue in body; made up of extracellular matrix between living cells and has variations in blood supply; found in bones, tendons and fat and other soft padding
apical surface
epithelial cells always facing outward; most superficial layer of cells
basal surface
deepest layer of epithelial cells; rests on basement membrane
lateral surface
connecting points from cell to cell in epithelial tissue
basement membrane
A thin extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers: Basal lamina-closer to and secreted by the epithelial cells also contains proteins (laminin, collagen, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans) Reticular lamina-contains collagen produced by connective tissue cells called fibroblasts; functions in cellular growth and would healing
simple squamous epithelium
functions in diffusion, filtration or secretion; not found in areas of high friction found in air sacs of lungs, in kidney glomeruli, lining of heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels and lining of serous membranes
simple cuboidal epithelium
functions in secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells; found in kidney tubules, on ovaries, and in secretory portions of small glands
simple columnar epithelium
functions in secretion and absorption; can contain goblet cells and/or be ciliated which serves to propel mucus or reproductive cells; found in digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands; ciliated found lining small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of uterus
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
functions in secretion and absorption; can have goblet cells and cilia; male's sperm carrying ducts and ducts of large glands; ciliated lines trachea and most of upper respiratory tract
stratified squamous epithelium
functions to protect underlying tissue from friction; keratinized forms epidermis of the skin; non-keratinized "wet" found lining esophagus, mouth and vagina
stratified cuboidal epithelium
functions in protection; found in largest ducts of sweat, mammary and salivary glands
stratified columnar epithelium
functions in protection and secretion; rare in body; small amounts in male urethra and in large ducts of some glands
transitional epithelium
functions by stretching readily and permitting distention without leaking; returns to original shape; found lining urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
extracellular matrix
non-living material between living cells in connective tissue; composed of ground substance and fibers
osseous tissue
functions by protecting and supporting body, providing levers for muscles to act on, storing calcium and other minerals and fat, and forming blood cells in marrow; found in bones
hyaline tissue
functions to support and reinforce, has resilient cushioning properties, resists compressive stress; most common type of cartilage; found in larynx and entire fetal skeleton, costal cartilage of ribs, and ends of long bones in joints
fibrocartilage
compressible; found between vertebral discs, in pelvic connective tissue and in discs of knee joint
dense irregular connective tissue
able to withstand tension in many directions; provides structural strength; found in fibrous capsules of organs and joints, dermis of the skin and the submucosa of digestive tract
fibroblast
a large flat cell that secretes most of the extracellular matrix of areolar and dense connective tissue
dense regular connective tissue
functions to attach muscles to bones and muscles; attach bones to bones; withstand great tensile stress in one direction; found in tendons, ligaments and dermis
tendons
attach muscle to bone or muscle
ligaments
attach bone to bone
elastic connective tissue
allows recoil of tissue following stretching; maintains flow of blood through arteries; adds passive recoil of lungs; found in walls of large arteries, within certain ligaments assoc. with vertebral column, within walls of bronchial tubes, and in external ear
areolar tissue
functions to wrap and cushion organs; has macrophages that phagocytize bacteria; plays role in inflammation and conveying tissue fluid; found under epithelia of body; packaging organs; surrounding capillaries
reticular tissue
forms a soft internal skeleton (stroma) that supports white blood cells, mast cells, and microphages; found in lymphoid organs
adipose tissue
functions to insulate body, support and protect organs, and provide reserve fuel; found under skin, around kidneys and eyeballs and in abdomen, in breasts
vascular tissue
functions as transport vehicle for respiratory gases, nutrients, waste and other substances; found in blood vessels
skeletal muscle
functions to pull bones when contracting; under voluntary control; found attached to bone and occasionally to skin
cardiac muscle
functions to pump blood; under involuntary control; found only in the walls of heart
smooth muscle
functions to propel substances or objects along internal passageways; under involuntary control; found mostly in the walls of hollow organs
nervous tissue
functions to transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors; transmits to effectors and controls their activity; found in brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves
regeneration
tissue repair by replacing destroyed tissue- e.g. scab on epithelial tissue; epithelial, osseous and fibrous connective tissues are easily replaced this way
fibrosis
repairs tissue with dense connective tissue (scar tissue) ; cardiac muscle tissue and nervous tissue in the brain and spinal cord are often replaced this way
vitamin c
must be ingested orally; good for collagen repair and wound healing; a deficiency can result in scurvy
granulation
growth of new capillaries and rebuilding collagen fibers during tissue repair
cutaneous membrane
largest organ of the body; consists of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
mucous membrane
lines interior body surfaces open to the outside; found in digestive tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive tract
serous membrane
lines some internal surfaces; has a parietal layer next to body wall, _______ fluid between layers, and a visceral layer next to organ; found in pleural cavity, pericardium, and peritoneal cavity
synovial membrane
enclose certain joints; are made of connective tissue only; are filled with ________ fluid
endocrine
glands that secrete their contents directly into the bloodstream
exocrine
glands that secrete their contents into a lumen or duct; includes mucus, sweat(sudoriferous) , oil(sebaceous) , earwax, saliva, and digestive enzymes
sudoriferous
glands that secrete sweat; consist of eccrine(body) and apocrine(armpits and genitalia)
sebaceous
glands that secrete oil; have ducts that empty into hair follicles or directly onto skin; acts as lubricant for skin, prevents brittle hair by decreasing water loss, and inhibits growth of some bacteria
eccrine
sudoriferous glands that open via ducts to pores on skin; produce clear sweat
apocrine
sudoriferous glands that empty into hair follicles in armpits and genitalia; produce milky sweat that contains fatty acids and proteins
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
layers of the epidermis, all beginning with stratum
stratum basale
deepest layer or epidermis; form the papillary; cells are undergoing mitosis constantly; merkel cells (light touch) are located in this layer
merkel cell
light touch receptor cell
stratum spinosum
2nd deepest layer of epidermis; appears to have spinelike thorns on examination; langerhan cells (immune) and melanocytes are located in this layer
stratum granulosum
3rd deepest layer of epidermis; consists of 3-5 layers of keratinocytes and is undergoing constant apoptosis; contains lamellar granules which secrete a rich sealant between layers
stratum lucidum
layer just below surface layer of skin; occurs only on palmar and plantar surfaces; thick layers of dead keratinocytes
stratum corneum
outermost layer of epidermis; very thin but thickens on palms and soles; 25 to 30 layers of dead keratinocytes
epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
skin layers from superficial to deepest
dermis
composed of dense connective tissue; has upper papillary layer with pain and touch receptors and deepest reticular layer with blood vessels, sweat and oil glands and deep pressure receptors
hypodermis
deepest layer; not technically skin; anchors skin to underlying tissue; composed of mostly adipose; sub-Q injection site
melanin
yellow, brown or black pigments
carotene
orange-yellow pigment; can be found in carrots and tomatoes
hemoglobin
red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries; oxygen content determines extent of red coloring in blood; low oxygen manifests in blue coloring- cyanosis
cyanosis
blue skin/sclera/nails resulting from inability of red blood cells to carry oxygen
erythema
redness due to embarrassment, inflammation, hypertension, fever or allergy
pallor
blanching due to emotional stress such as fear, anemia, low blood pressure, or impaired blood flow to an area
jaundice
yellowing from a liver disorder
bruise
injured vessels of the skin or muscle tissue
hematoma
blood clot
epidermal
healing process that occurs following superficial wounds; "good as new"
deep
healing process that occurs when an injury extends to the dermis and subcutaneous layer; loss of function and development of scar tissue is expected
burn
tissue damage caused by excessive heat, electricity, radioactivity, or corrosive chemicals that denature the proteins in skin cells; assoc. with dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and circulatory shock
first degree burn
involves only epidermis; no blistering, only redness and mild pain; skin functions remain intact
second degree burn
involves epidermis and part of dermis; redness, blistering, edema and pain
third degree burn
destroys epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layer; burn is grey-white, or black; skin is numb because nerve endings have been destroyed; most skin functions are lost
fourth degree burn
burn to the bone; deadly
25
considered critical if over ___ percent of body has 2nd degree burns
10
considered critical if over ___ percent of body has 3rd degree burns
face, hands, or feet
considered critical if there are 3rd degree burns on...
rule of nines
body is divided into 11 areas, each representing about 9% of total surface area; helps to determine extent of body burns
athlete's foot
tinea pedis; caused by fungal infection
bacterial infection
boils, carbuncles, and impetigo are cause by staphylococcus aureus, a __________ __________
contact dermatitis
exposures that cause allergic reaction
cold sores
caused by herpes simplex
psoriasis
triggered by trauma, infection, stress; cause is unknown; manifests as chunks of scaly skin
basal cell carcinoma
most common and least malignant type of cancer; arises from stratum basale; looks like light colored mole
squamous cell carcinoma
will metastasize to lymph nodes if not removed; arises from stratum spinosum; believed to be caused by sun damage
malignant melanoma
cancer of melanocytes; characterized by asymmetry, border irregularity, color, and diameter (ABCD rule)