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transformation

moving a shape so that it is in a different position, but still has the same size, area, angles and line lengths

pre-image

the original image before transformation

image

a figure resulting from a transformation

rotation

a transformation made by rotating (turning or spinning) a figure around a given point

reflection

a transformation created by reflecting (flipping) an image over a line

translation

a transformation created by sliding an object

dilation

a transformation created proportionally by enlarging or reducing a figure

congruent

having the same size and shape

exterior angles

an angle formed outside a polygon by extending one of its sides

plane

a flat, 2D surface that goes in all directions forever

transversal

a line that intersects (crosses) two or more lines in a given plane

proof

a convincing demonstration that a mathematical statement is true

hypotenuse

the side opposite the right angle - it is also the longest side of a right triangle

Pythagorean Theorem

in a right triangle the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs A²+B²=C²

cone volume

the number of cubic units needed to fill a cone

cylinder volume

the number of cubic units needed to fill a cylinder

sphere volume

the number of cubic units needed to fill a sphere

rational number

a number that can be expressed as a ratio (fraction) of two integers - terminating and repeating decimals are considered rational

irrational number

a number that can NOT be expressed as a ratio of two integers or as a repeating or terminating decimal - Pi or any square root of an imperfect square are considered irrational

radical symbol

the symbol used to represent the non-negative square root of a number

square root

one of two equal factors (multiplication) of a number - it is the side of a square

cubed root

one of three equal factors (multiplication) of a number - it is the side of a cube

scientific notation

a method of writing very large (34,200,000) or very small (0.0000029) numbers using powers of 10

linear function

a function (equation) whose graph is a straight line

non-linear function

a function (equation) whose graph is NOT a straight line

function (equation or rule)

an input-output relationship that has exactly one output (y-value) for each input (x-value)

scatter plot

a graph with points plotted to show a possible relationship between two sets of data

bivariate measurement

involves the analysis of two variables for the purpose of determining a relationship

outlier

a value much greater or much less than the others in a set of data - any data point 1.5 times the interquartile range away from the 1st quartile (lower quartile) or 3rd quartile (upper quartile)

line of best fit

a straight line that comes closest to the points on a scatter plot - having an equal number of points above and below the line

linear equation

an equation that makes a straight line when it is graphed - also called a linear function

slope

a measure of the steepness of a line on a graph - m - rise over run - pattern of the y-outputs

intercepts

points where a line crosses the x-axis and y-axis

slope-intercept form

a linear equation written in the form y = mx + b, where m represents slope and b represent the y-intercept

coefficient

the number that is multiplied by (in front of) the variable in an algebraic expression

variable

a symbol for an unknown number - usually expressed as a letter