16 terms

Thorndike's law of effect

Primary reinforcement Secondary reinforcement Shaping Reinforcement schedules
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thorndike's law of effect
principle developed by edward thorndike that says that any behavior that results in satisfying consequences tends to be repeated and that any behavior that results in unsatisfying consequences tends not to be repeated
primary reinforcement
stimulus that is innately reinforcing (food)
secondary reinforcement
stimulus that gains its reinforcing property through learning. (money)
shaping
training human or animal to make an operant response by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired response
reinforcement schedules
fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable
fixed ratio
a reinforcer is delivered each time a fixed number of responses are made. fixed number can be any number greater than one. (every 10 wallets worker gets paid)
variable ratio
number of responses it takes to obtain a reinforcer varies on each trial but averages to set a number across trials. (gambling)
fixed interval
reinforcer is delivered after the first response is given once a fixed interval of time has elapsed ( finals, midterms.)
variable interval
reinforcer is delivered after the first response is given once a variable interval of time has elapsed. (pop quizzes)
3 motivation theories
drive reduction, incentive, arousal
drive-reduction theory
our behavior is motivated to reduce drives ( bodily tension states) created by unsatisfied bodily needs to return the body to a balanced internal state (need to eat to concentrate
incentive theory
our behavior is motivated by incentives (external stimuli that we have learned to associate with reinforcement) (i work cause i get paid)
arousal theory
our behavior is motivated to maintain an optimal level of physiological arousal. (concert)
sensory memory
iconic, echoic
iconic
exact copy visually usually short term memory
echoic
sound, hearing usually short term memory
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