"A feminine moral theory based on the female perspective emphasizing care relationships and compassion. Defines good as meeting the needs of others and preserving and enriching relationships." (MacKinnon, 2013, coursemate)
Equity; treating like cases the same way
"In care perspective, the moral requirement to prevent harm and help people; in justice perspective, the basis of what is owed or due." (MacKinnon, 2013, coursemate)
"a moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions" (MacKinnon, 2013, coursemate)
1936-present; maintained that Köhlberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles
"An approach to ethics that emphasizes masculine traits, such as impartiality, fairness, and autonomy" (MacKinnon, 2013, coursemate)
Feminist objective to bring out the causes of women's subordination and oppression suggesting ways to eliminate these causes and their results
Ethics of caring
"A feminine morality based on a female moral perspective emphasizing care relationships and compassion. Also called ethics of care." (MacKinnon, 2013, coursemate)
Concern and empathy for others
"Viewing that the relationship becomes the figure, defining self and others. Within the context of relationship, the self as a moral agent perceives and responds to the perception of need." (MacKinnon, 2013, coursemate)
Male moral perspective
* Universal and impartial standpoint in reasoning about what is morally good and bad. * Inclined to talk in terms of fairness and justice and rights. *Ask about the overall effects of some action and whether the good effects, when all are considered, outweigh the bad.
Female moral perspective
* Morality is highly personal. * Partial to their loved ones and think that one's primary moral responsibility is these people. * The primary moral obligation is to prevent harm and to help people.
Judged women to be morally underdeveloped because they did not take on the universal perspective; however, he used an all male sample in working out his theory.
Three distinct types of explanation address possible differences between male and female morality.
1) Differences in the psychosexual development of the two sexes. 2) Biological differences. 3) Social, cultural, or educational.
The difference between women and men's morality is in part due to men's and women's biology.