an organism's interaction with the environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and the result in measureable change in at least one aspect of the environment.
The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists. A complex, dynamic universe of events that differs from instance to instance.
Any group of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements in one or more dimension.
The immediate but temporary effect of increasing or decreasing the current frequency of the behavior.
Behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli, induced by the stimulus that precedes it.
The act of pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus which results in the neutral stimulus becoming a conditioned stimulus and eliciting a conditioned response.
Repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits a conditioned response.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus or another CS.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
Conditioned Reflex (CR)
A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicits.
A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the same function of the other stimulus.
Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus.
Any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences.
The presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior.
The withdrawal of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior.
The presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior.
The withdrawal of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior.
Automacity of Reinforcement
Behavior is modified by its consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware of being reinforced.
A stimulus change that can increase the future frequency of behavior without prior pairing with any other form of reinforcement, i.e. water, food, oxygen, etc.
An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effect of a stimulus and alters the current behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus,
The state of an organism with respect to how long its been since it has consumed or contacted reinforcer.
A decrease in behavior of an organism presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer.
A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without any prior pairing with another punisher. i.e. painful stimulation
Function as a reinforcer only because of prior pairing with other reinforcers.
A behavior that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than others.
When a discriminated operant occurs at a higher frequency in the presence of a given stimulus than it does in its absence.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occured and not been reinforced.