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49 terms

Cooper Ch 02 - Basic Concepts

STUDY
PLAY
Behavior
an organism's interaction with the environment that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and the result in measureable change in at least one aspect of the environment.
Temporal Locus
Behavior occurs in time
Temperol extent
Duration of the behavior
Repeatability
frequency of which behavior occurs over time
Response
A single instance of a behavior
Response topography
The physical shape or form of behavior
Response class
A group of responses with the same function.
Repertoire
All behaviors a person can do. A person's "bag of tricks"
Environment
The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists. A complex, dynamic universe of events that differs from instance to instance.
Stimulus
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptore cells.
Stimulus class
Any group of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements in one or more dimension.
Antecedent
Environmental or stimulus change that exist or occur prior to the behavior of interest.
Consequence
Stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest.
Stimulus changes
The immediate but temporary effect of increasing or decreasing the current frequency of the behavior.
Respondent Behavior
Behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli, induced by the stimulus that precedes it.
Habituation
The gradual decrease of response strength over time due to repeated exposure.
Respondent Conditioning
The act of pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a neutral stimulus which results in the neutral stimulus becoming a conditioned stimulus and eliciting a conditioned response.
Respondent extinction.
Repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits a conditioned response.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus or another CS.
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
A condition change that does not elicit a conditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
Conditioned Reflex (CR)
A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicits.
Stimulus-stimulus pairing
A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the same function of the other stimulus.
Higher-order conditioning
Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus.
Operant Behvior
Any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its history of consequences.
Ontogeny
The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
Phylogeny
The history of the natural evolution of a species.
Operant Conditioning
The process and selective effects of consequences on behavior.
Reinforcer
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that precedes it.
Punisher
A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that precedes it.
Positive Reinforcement
The presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior.
Negative reinforcement
The withdrawal of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior.
Positive Punishment
The presentation of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior.
Negative Punishment
The withdrawal of a stimulus that decreases the future frequency of the behavior.
Automacity of Reinforcement
Behavior is modified by its consequences regardless of whether the individual is aware of being reinforced.
Extinction
Withholding of reinforcement which results in a decrease in behavior.
Unconditioned reinforcer
A stimulus change that can increase the future frequency of behavior without prior pairing with any other form of reinforcement, i.e. water, food, oxygen, etc.
Motivating Operations
An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effect of a stimulus and alters the current behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus,
Deprivation
The state of an organism with respect to how long its been since it has consumed or contacted reinforcer.
Satiation
A decrease in behavior of an organism presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer.
Unconditioned Punisher
A stimulus change that can decrease the future frequency of any behavior that precedes it without any prior pairing with another punisher. i.e. painful stimulation
Conditioned Reinforcers
Function as a reinforcer only because of prior pairing with other reinforcers.
Conditioned Punisher
Function as a punisher only because of prior pairing with other punishers.
Discriminated Operant
A behavior that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than others.
Stimulus control
When a discriminated operant occurs at a higher frequency in the presence of a given stimulus than it does in its absence.
Discriminative Stimulus (SD)
A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced and in the absence of which the same type of responses have occured and not been reinforced.
Three-term Contingency
Antecedent-Behavior-Consquence
Contingency
If x than y.
Contingent
Behavior must be emitted for a consequence to occur.