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microbiology chapter 6

STUDY
PLAY
Host cells of viruses include:
a. Human and other animals
b. Protozoa and algae
c. Plants and fungi
d. All of the choices are correct
e. Bacteria
all of the choices are correct
A _____ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core of a virus:
a. Capsid
b. Spike
c. Monolayer
d. Envelope
e.Capsomere
capsid
A common method for cultivating viruses in the lab is to use in vitro systems called _____ cultures:
a. Bacteriophage
b. Embryo
c. Egg
d. Cell
e. Plaque
cell
Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus:
a. Spike
b. Capsid
c. Envelope
d. Capsomere
e. Core
capsid
A naked virus only has a(n):
a. Antigenic surface
b. Envelope
c. Capsomere
d. Nucleocapsid
e. Capsid
nucleocapsid
Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect?
a. Cells round up
b. All of the choices are correct
c. Inclusions in the cytoplasm
d. Inclusions in the nucleus
e. Multinucleated giant cells
all of the choices are correct
Persistent viruses that can reactivate periodically are:
a. Chronic latent viruses
b. Cytiopathic
c. Oncoviruses
d. Inclusion bodies
e. Syncytia
Chronic latent viruses
In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's _____
a. Cytoplasm, cell membrane
b. Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum
c. Cell membrane, cytoplasm
d. Cytoplasm, nucleus
e. Nucleus, cytoplasm
Nucleus, cytoplasm
One of the principal capsid shapes is a 20-sided figure with 12 evenly spaced corners referred to as a(n) _____ capsid:
a. Complex
b. Spiked
c. Helical
d. Buckeyball
e. Icosahedral
Icosahedral
Infectious naked strands of RNA that affect plants are called:
a. Phages
b. Oncogenic viruses
c. Prions
d. Viroids
e. Spikes
Viroids
Viral spikes:
a. Bind viral capsid and envelope together
b. Are always present on enveloped viruses
c. All of the choices are correct
d. Allow bacteria to evade host defenses
e. Are derived from host proteins
Are always present on enveloped viruses
Viruses with _____ sense RNA contain the correct message for translation, while viruses with _____ sense RNA must first be converted into a correct message:
a. Secondary, primary
b. Primary, secondary
c. Positive, negative
d. Negative, positive
e. None of the choices are correct
Positive, negative
The process of dissolving the envelope and capsid to release the viral nucleic acid is:
a. Uncoating
b. Synthesis
c. Adsorption
d. Assembly
e. Penetration
Uncoating
Which of the following is incorrect about prophages?
a. Formed when viral DNA enters the bacterial chromosome
b. Cause lysis of host cells
c. Replicated with host DNA and passed on to progeny
d. Occur when temperate phages enter host cells
e. Present when the virus is in lysogeny
Cause lysis of host cells
In transduction, the viral genome:
a. Is replicated in the cytoplasm
b. Initiates lysis of the host
c. Includes DNA from the previous host
d. Is replicated in the nucleus
e. None of the choices are correct
Includes DNA from the previous host
New, nonenveloped virus release occurs by:
a. Exocytosis
b. Lysis
c. Budding
d. Both lysis and budding
e. Both budding and exocytosis
lysis
Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called:
a. Bacteriophages
b. All of the choices infect bacteria
c. Satellite viruses
d. Viroids
e. Prions
bacteriophages
During lysogeny, an inactive prophage state occurs when the viral DNA is inserted into the:
a. Host DNA
b. Host nucleolus
c. Host cytoplasm
d. Host cell membrane
e. Host nucleus
host DNA
The activation of a prophage is called:
a. Lysogeny
b. Induction
c. Adsorption
d. Activation
e. Transformation
induction
When a bacterium acquires a trait from its temperate phage, it is called:
a. Lysogenic conversion
b. Viral persistence
c. Translation
d. Transcription
e. Transformation
Lysogenic conversion
Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called:
a. Cytopathic effects
b. Budding
c. Pocks
d. Plaques
e. Lysogeny
plaque
Infectious protein particles are called:
a. Phages
b. Oncogenic viruses
c. Viroids
d. Spikes
e. Prions
prions
Creutzfeld-Jacob disease is:
a. Caused by a viroid
b. Initiated by an oncogenic virus
c. A spongiform encephalopathy of humans
d. Caused by a chronic latent virus
e. Also called mad cow disease
A spongiform encephalopathy of humans
Satellite viruses are:
a. Significant pathogens of plants
b. The cause of spongiform encephalopathies
c. Dependent on other viruses for replication
d. Also called viroids
e. All of the choices are correct
Dependent on other viruses for replication
Viral nucleic acids include which of the following:
a. Double stranded DNA
b. Double stranded RNA
c. Single stranded DNA
d. Single stranded RNA
e. All of the choices are correct
all of the choices are correct
Virus capsids are made from subunits called:
a. Peplomers
b. Prophages
c. Spikes
d. Envelopes
e. Capsomeres
Capsomeres
Which of the following will not support viral cultivation?
a. Primary cell cultures
b. Embryonated bird eggs
c. Live lab animals
d. All of the choices will support viral cultivation
e. Continuous cell cultures
All of the choices will support viral cultivation
The envelope of enveloped viruses is:
a. Only compose of host endomembrane
b. Is obtained by viral budding or exocytosis
c. None of the choices are correct
d. Identical to the host plasma membrane
e. Always includes spikes
Is obtained by viral budding or exocytosis
The core of every virus particle always contains:
a. Either DNA or RNA
b. DNA
c. DNA and RNA
d. Capsomeres
e. Enzymes
Either DNA or RNA
Which of the following is not a typical capsid shape?
a. Helical
b. All of the choices are capsid shapes
c. Tetrahedral
d. Complex
e. Icosahedron
Tetrahedral
The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is:
a. Assembly, synthesis, uncoating, release, penetration, adsorption
b. Uncoating, penetration, synthesis, assembly, absorption, release
c. Penetration, uncoating, synthesis, adsorption, assembly, release
d. Adsorption, release, synthesis, uncoating, assembly, penetration
e. Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release
Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release
Mammalian viruses capable of starting tumors are:
a. Syncytia
b. Inclusion bodies
c. Chronic latent viruses
d. Cytopathic
e. Oncoviruses
Oncoviruses
Which of the following is not associated with every virus?
a. Nucleic acid
b. Envelope
c. Capsomeres
d. Genome
e. Capsid
Envelope
Host range is limited by:
a. Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane
b. Type of nucleic acid in the virus
c. Size of the host cell
d. All of the choices are correct
e. Age of the host cell
Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane
Viruses attach to their hosts via:
a. Viral flagella
b. Host glycoproteins
c. Host phospholipids
d. Viral phospholipids
e. All of the choices are correct
Host glycoproteins
Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called:
a. Delta agents
b. Oncogenic
c. Prions
d. Latent
e. Viroids
latent
The primary purposes of viral cultivation are:
a. All of these
b. to do detailed research on viral structure, lifestyle, genetics and effects on host cells
c. to prepare viruses for vaccines
d. to isolate and identify viruses in clinical specimens
All of these