Mammals practical three

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List 5 characteristics of mammals
1. Give live birth (3 exceptions...)
2. Mammary glands
3. Homeothermic and endothermic (Usually...)
4. Hair and fur
5. 4-chambered hearts
6. Teeth are differentiated (Usually)
7. Sebaceous glands - emit oils
8. Left-sided aortic arch (birds and crocodiles are right sided)
9. Enucleated red blood cells (birds have nuclei in blood cells) 10. Hard secondary palate (allows us to chew and swallow food) 11. Vocal cords and larynx and epiglottis
12. Muscular diaphragm
13. Determinate growth
14. Tonsils
15. 3 inner ear bones (Maleus, Incus, and Stapes)
Mammals evolved from
Reptiles called therapsids
How is body temperature regulated?
Metabolism- endothermic
What kind of heart does mammals have?
4 chambered heart
Predators have a ______ digestive system ?
Short
Herbivores have a _____ digestive system?
Long
Omnivores have a _____ digestive system
Medium
What are the three main groups of mammals?
monotremes, marsupials, placental
What are monotremes?
Mammals that lay eggs
What are marsupials?
Pouched mammals
What are placental mammals?
Mammals which develop as embryos in the uterus of females and are nourished by placenta
What is the subclass for egg-laying mammals?
Prototheria
What is the order for egg-laying mammals?
Monotremta (monotremes)
What is the subclass for true mammals
Theria
Monotremes are the most primitive group, true or false?
True
What are the eggs called?
Oviparous
Are monotremes completely endothermic?
No
What do monotremes lack?
Nipples
How do monotremes feed young?
Excrete milk from mammary glands via openings in their skin
What is the infraclass for subclass theria
Metatheria (marsupials)
What are marsupials?
Pouched mammals
When is the young born of marsupials
One month of fertilization
What is the only marsupial in North America?
Virginia opossum
What are placental mammals?
Mammals which develop as embryos in the uterus of females and are nourished by placenta
What is the young nourished by in placental mammals?
Placenta
What does the placenta do?
Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the embryos
Most mammals are placental animals, true or false?
True
What is the order for bats?
Chiroptera
What is the order for apes and monkeys
Primates
What is the order for canines and felines
Carnviora
What is the order for whales?
Cetacea
What is the order for rodents
Rodentia
What is the order for ungolates?
Artiodactyla
Bats are what percentage of all mammals?
26%
What is impacting bats in North America?
White nose syndrome
What are the two suborders for bats?
2 Suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera)
How many families are in the order of primates
15 families
Human taxonomy of order primates
Family Hominidae, subfamily homininae
Ape vs monkey
Apes have no tail, monkey has tail
What is the suborder of Carnivora
Caniformia
What is the suborder for felines
Feliformia
What is a baculum?
Penis bone
What is carnassial teeth used for
Cutting flesh and bones of other mammals
What is homologous structures?
Similarity due to common ancestor
What is analogous structures?
Similarity due to similar evolutionary pressures
What are vestigial structures?
• Vestigial Structure- remnant of a ancestral structure which no longer functions
What are the three types of muscles?
skeletal, smooth, cardiac
What does skeletal muscle do?
Most abundant. Attachedto skeleton and used for movement, forms bundles
What does smooth muscle do?
Forms sheets-used for involuntary movements like the contraction of the stomach and intestine
What does the cardiac muscle do?
Found only in the heart, provides for the rhythmic beating of the heart
What are the kidneys function?
Regulate body fluid levels and filter wastes from the body
What does the central nervous system consist of?
Spinal cord and brain
What does the peripheral nervous system consist of?
All other neural tissue - sensory and motor nerves
What does the autonomic nervous system control?
the heart and other organs you don't think about
Mammals have what that forces air in and out of the lungs?
Muscular diaphragm
What is viviparous
Give birth to young
What is the lower jaw composed of?
Dentistry bones called mandible
What plays an important role in mammals with long tails?
The caudal vertebrae
Cats display what kind of locomotion
Digit grade meaning that they walk on the tips of their digits
What is human locomotion classified as?
Plantigrade
What is the order for fetal pig
Order artiodactyla
What plays a critical role in the circulatory system
Spleen
What produces hormones
Endrocrine system
What is the largest portion of the brain
Cerebrum
Function of the frontal lobe
Consciousness
Function of temporal lobe
Speech
function of occipital lobe
vision
function of parietal lobe
sensory
What is the nicitating membrane?
Third eye lid; humans lack this
What is the cornea?
Located in front of the orb, a clear window in the sclera allows light to enter the eye
What do optic nerve do?
Sends info to the brain
What is it called when you see "eyeshine" of animal at night?
Tapetum luciclum