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APWH CH 6
Terms in this set (88)
early agriculture in Mesoamerica
By 8000 to 7000 bce the ppl of Mesoamerica- the region from the central portion of modern Mexico to Honduras and El Salvador- had begun to experiment with the cultivation of beans, chili peppers, avocados, squashes, and gourds. By 4000bce they had discovered the agricultural potential of maize, which soon became the staple food of the region. Agricultural villages appeared soon after 3000bce and by 2000bce agriculture had spread throughout Mesoamerica. Early mesoamericans ppl had a diet rich in cultivated foods, but they did not keep as many animals as their counterparts in the eastern hemisphere.
by the end of the second millennium bce the tempo of Mesoamerican life quickened as elaborate ceremonial centers with monumental pyramids, temples, and palaces arose alongside the agricultural villages. Permanent residents of the ceremonial centers included members of the ruling elites, priests, and a few artisans and craftmen who tended to the needs of the ruling and priestly classes. They gather on special occasions to observe ritual or on market days to exchange goods and then return to their homes.
Olmecs: The "Rubber People"
The earliest known ceremonial centers of the ancient Americas appeared on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, the Olmecs. Historians and archaeologists had studied Olmec since 1940s but we still dont know much. Even their proper name is unknown: the term Olmec means Rubber People. It did not come from the ancient people but derives instead from the rubber trees that flourish in the region they inhabited. The first olmec ceremonial center arose about 1200bce on the site of the modern town of San Lorenzo and it served as their capital for some four hundred years.
Olmec society was probably authoritarian in nature. each of the principle sites featured an elaborate complex of temples, pyramids, altars, stone sculptures, tombs for rulers. Common subjects delivered a portion of their harvests for the maintenance of the elite classes living in the ceremonial centers and provided labor for the various large scale construction projects.
Trade in Jade and Obsidian
The Olmecs spread their influence partly by military force, but trade was a prominent between the Olmec heartland and the other regions of Mesoamerica.The Olmecs produced large numbers of decorative objects from jade, which they had to import. Without technology, they also made extensive use of obsidian from which they fashioned knives and axes with wickedly sharp cutting edges. Like jade, obsidian came to the gulf coast from distant regions in the interior of Mesoamerica. In exchange for the imports, the Olmecs traded small works of art fashioned from jade, basalt or ceramics and perhaps also local products such as animal skin.
The earliest heirs of the Olmecs were the Maya, who created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El salvador. The highlands of Guatemala offer fertile soil and excellent conditions for agriculture. Permanent villages began to appear there during the third century bce. The most prominent of them was Kaminaljuyu. Like the other capitals, Kamina was a ceremonial center rather than a true city but it dominated the life of other communities in the region. By fourth century bce, Kamina fell under the economic and perhaps also the political dominance of the much larger city of Teotihuacan.
The most important Maya political center between the fourth and ninth centuries ce. At its height, roughly 600 to 800ce, Tikal was a wealthy and bustling city with a population approaching forty thousands. It boasted enormous paved plazas and scores of temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings. The Temple os the Giant Jaguar, a stepped pyramid rising sharply to a height of 47 meters(154 feet) dominated the skyline and represented Tikal's control over the surrounding region, which had a population of about five hundred thousand.
The Maya kingdoms fought constantly with each other. Victors generally destroyed the ppl they defeated and took over their ceremonial centers but the purpose of Maya warfare was not so much to kill enemies as to capture them in hand-to-hand combat on the battlefield. Warriors won enormous prestige when they brought back important captives from neighboring kingdoms.They stripped captives of their fine dress and symbols of rank and sometimes they kept high ranking captives alive for years, displaying them as trophies. Most captives ended their lives either as slaves or as sacrificial victims to Maya gods.
Olmecs (Rubber Peoples)
Early Mesoamerican society (1200-100BCE) that centered at San Lorenzo, La Venta, and Tres Zapotes; had a diet heavily centered around plants, but domesticated animals like turkeys and small dogs; built large ceremonial centers & elaborate drainage systems to divert water from their heavy rainfall to their crops especially maize. Built large stone heads and produced lots of decorative objects from jade and tools from obsidian. Systematically destroyed ceremonial centers before deserting town. Made astronomical observations and created a calendar, as well as a system of writing.
The Earliest Heirs to the Olmecs. They created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and, El Salvador. Built TERRACES designed to trap silt carried by the numerous rivers passing through the lowlands. Cultivated maize as their staple crop, also cotton for weaving fine textiles, & cocoa beans for money .
A Mayan city that would integrate captives into society rather than killing them. Between the 9th and 11th century they had formed a loose empire.
Believed to be a large theocratic agricultural village; rapidly expanded to fifty thousand; had pyramid of the sun & for the moon; all citizens lived in the city; had fine orange pottery workers
Developed in Andean Mountains in, what is now, modern day Peru, Columbia, parts of Chile, and parts of Ecuador; geography discouraged communication; warm & dry climate
A religion that spread throughout modern day Peru in 1000 B.C.E., vanished in 300 B.C.E., and used discovery of maize 2 promote fertility & specialization of labor
Pacific Islands (Oceania)
Consists of 20,000 to 30,000 islands. These islands were inhabited by ancient people from Australia and New Guinea. The people settled in these lands in a time period when seas were very low and sailing distances were very short.
Maya Society & Religion
Had distinct Social classes, invented ZERO, 365 & 260 day CALENDAR, writing, 7 simple astronomy; Had Popol Vah that states gods made humans out of maize & water
bloodshed so that gods would send rain
Maya ball game
game where you had to get rubber ball into ring w/o using hands
best cerimonial center
political center where Temple of Jaguar was
domesticated alpacas & llamas & cultivated POTATOES & wool' specialized in gold, silver, copper, fishnets & looms; Had regional states had trade that connected highlands to valleys; had pottery paint depicting social classes
indigenous people to Australia who began as hunter gatherers un 18th cent; used plants for food & MEDICINE
seafaring people of N. New Guinea who cultivate yams & taro b/c they could not survive on little islands by hunting & gathering
1st people to establish permanent settlements in Pacific Island; made geometric pottery
Voyage of Ru
left Aitutaki by canoe b/c of overpopulation & tension w/ 28 people
Places in Oceania
Fiji, Tahiti, Hawaii, New Zealand, Madagascar, Marshall Islands, & Micronesia
the term olmec means "rubber people". They are the earliest known cermonial centers of ancient americas (appeared on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico). They served as the nerve center of the first complex society of the americas. (page 105)
a agricultural society that believed in gods and sacrifice, they migrated to america during the ice age they created a remarkable society in the region now occupied by southern mexico, guatemala, belize, honduras, and el salvador. the most prominent of the permanent villages was kaminaljuyu. they built pyramids, palaces, and tempels. tikil was the most important maya political center between the forth and the ninth centuries. maya were people of war but the purpose of maya war far was not to kill but to capture.by about 800C.E. however, most maya populations had begun to desert there cities. they included a long class of priests who maintained elaborate calendars. they studied astromeny and mathamatics. they where built upon cultural achievments of thier olmec predecessors. they invented the concept of zero. they created the most flexible and sophisticated of all the early american systems or writing. pg103&108-114 **
** the maya script was written on paper as well as on temples and monuments.
A group of languages that originated in the country of New Guinea which have adapted to modern languages such as Malayan, Indonesian, Fillipino and Polynesian (page 121-textbook) ***additional information- (p. 121) - Seafaring peoples from southeast Asia who first entered New Guinea and surrounding islands about 5,000 years ago. Their skills of navigation, agriculture, and raising domestic animals helped them to people most islands of the Pacific. Also the population pressure and internal conflicts pushed these people to the Pacific islands.
One of the earliest Andean states that left a remarkable artistic legacy that allowed a glimpse into life of a society. The Mochica State base is in the valley of the moche river, it dominated the coasts valleys of Northern Peru. It was around about 300 to 700 C.E. Their paintings were mainly pottery vesels with detail and expressive depiction of early Andean society. One of the several large states that dominated the central Andean region. Mochica people were aristocrats, warrior, and working women heavely supervised while working. Artist left abundant evidence of a complex society with considerable specialized labor.
An early society in the Andes mountains that promoted fertility and abundant harvest. They created stone carvings and other art of both humans and nature. They focused primarily on the seasons of harvesting and planting, which appealed to farmers and other agricultural societies of early South America.(pgs.117-118,Textbook)***additional information (pp. 117-18) - Popular religious cult of the Andeans, centered at the modern location of Chavín de Huantar in northern Peru. It was a popular Andean religion from 900 to 800 B.C.E.
An archaeological site of the Olmec civilization that is currently located in present day Tabasco, Mexico. La Venta is a major Olmec religious center that was used from about 1000 B.C. to about 400 B.C. and from 800 B.C. to 400 B.C. was the most important settlement in Mesoamerica.
The site of the first olmec ceremonial center that arose around 1200 BCE and acted as the capital for about 400 hundred years; systematicall destroyed and deserted by the Olmecs after the decline and fall or their societies. additional information ***(p. 105) - Three early Olmec ceremonial centers, dating from 1200 to 800 B.C.E., 800 to 400 B.C.E., and 400 to 100 B.C.E.,
Is the mayas largest ceremonial centers, it was the mayas most important center during the fourth and ninth centuries C.E. It was a wealthy busty city with a population between forty thousand people.It was know as the " temple of the giant jaguar" and it represented the mayas control over the rounding region. (Pgs 108- 109: Textbook) **
(pp. 108-109) -
* Most important Maya city kingdom between the fourth and ninth centuries C.E; located in the lowland area of modern day Mexico City. Also, it was surrounded with pyramids, temples and had a caste system such as kings, priests, and slaves.
The earlier center of this society was the large and bustling city of teotihuacan, located about fifty kilometres ( thirty-one miles) northeast of modern Mexico city. Page 114 textbook *
* (pp. 114-16) - Mesoamerican city northeast of modern Mexico city; inherited Olmec cultural traditions; flourished from 200 B.C.E. to 750 C.E.
Pyramid of the Sun
The largest single -structured monument in Mesoamerica which was built in the city of Teotihuacan in 100 CE by the Aztecs, occupies as much space as the pyramid of Khufu in Egypt, although it's half in size.
(page. 114-15 in textbook)
A Maya creation myth, taught that the gods had created human beings out of maize and water, the ingredients that became human flesh and blood. Thus maya religious thought reflected the fundamental role of agriculture in their society. (page 112/ textbook)
Andean societies developed largely in isolation. The heartland of early Andean society was the region now occupied by the states of Peru and Bolivia. In the absence of abundant pack animals or a technology to facilitate long-distance transportation, geography discouraged the establishment of communications between the Andean region and Mesoamerica.(pg. 116 textbook)
How did humans come to settle in all parts of the Americas and in Oceania?
Migration took place during ice ages when glaciers locked up much of the earth's water. temporary land bridges formed and humans traveled over them into the Americas. (Page 104 Textbook) **
** The low sea levels during the ice ages exposed land bridges that linked Siberia with Alaska and Australia with New Guinea.
What traditions begun by the Olmecs were later adopted by other Mesoamerican societies?
Olmec cutural traditions influenced all complez societies of Mesoamerica. The Olmecs spread their influence by military force and trade. Mesoamreican socities adopted several Olmec traditions including maize cultivation, building ceremonial centers with temple pyramids, maintaining a calendar based on one inherited from Olmec priests, ballgames, and rituals involving human sacrifice.(pg. 107-108, textbook)*** The settlers developed maize as their staple food.
What role did human sacrifice play in early American societies?
Bloodletting rituals that were performed by early Americans such as the Mayans, involved the cutting off of war captives' fingers and making other cuts on them to increase blood loss. Rituals like these were done to please their Gods so that they would bring rain to water the crops of Maize.(Pg.112,textbook)
What traditions begun by the Olmecs were later adopted by other Mesoamerican societies?
The use of public ceremonial centers, calendars, the cultivation of maize, ballgames, and human sacrifices was adopted by later societies (Pg.107-108,textbook)
How did the geography of South America influence the development of the early complex societies there?
The mountainous highlands and coastal regions with cool air and moist climate provided natural harvest for the South American people. During 8000 B.C.E, the climate began to become warm and dry, the pressure for natural harvest greatly increased due to this climate change. This began to allow humans to expirement with agriculture. This newly found agriculture then incouraged population growth, establishment of villages and organized cultural traditions. After 1000 B.C.E, South America began to develope complex societies as agriculture spread widely.
Where and how did agriculture spread in Oceania?
Austronesian people who settled in New Guina were dependent of cultivation so they taught it to the indigenous people. After a few centuries agriculture spread to all of New Guina and soon spread to the island of the the Torres Strait. (Pg. 122,textbook)***The Austronesians introduced root crops and domesticated animals to New Guinea.
How did the religion of the Maya reflect and reinforce their economy and governmental structure?
Mayan religion greatly influenced the economy and social structure of their society. The Maya had a religion wich focused on mathematics, writing, and astronomy. This caused Mayan priests to create a calander which governed the fourtune of and type of activities done each day. This type of religion also reinforced the structure of their society and government. Mayan society had kings and nobles who ruled over the land. The priests were the ones who practiced their highly advanced religion. Merchants who came from nobles traded with other societies and also served as ambassadors. They traded luxury goods that the Mayan people believed were signs of social status. Below the merchants were the architects who designed and planned out the construction of buildings. Artisians were specialists in pottery, tools, and textiles. The last but large class of peasants and slaves made food and constructed buildings planned out by the architects. The Myan religion caused the society to create an advanced and organized government in which each class worked together to forge a prosperous and bustling economy.Pg- 110
This early civilization included Mexico and Central America and it was based on sedentary agriculture and the cultivation of corn and food production.
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
contributed to mathematics by inventing the number zero, and used a symbol to represent zero mathematically, which allowed for manipulation of large numbers.
..., a new religion that appeared in the Andes mountains after 1000 BCE; enjoyed enormous popularity during the 900 to 800 BCE; spread in the area of modern Peru; vanished about 300 BCE; no information survives on the significance of the cults
having existed from the beginning
Pyramid of the sun
Pyramid found in ancient Teotihuacan, it was 200-feet tall and had a base larger than that of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.
Temple of the giant jaguar
a stepped pyramid that was 47 meters high (154 feet) and was located in Tikal
Society from New Guinea to Tonga (1500-500 B.C.E.) with agricultural villages, networks of trade and communication, and hierarchical chiefdoms.
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
the family of languages spoken in Australia and Formosa and Malaysia and Polynesia
Mochica is a society in the Andean valleys, near the Moche River, that left behind a remarkable artistic legacy. They made ceramics that represented gods and everyday life.
the most important Maya political center between the 4th-9th centuries. It was a city that had temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings.
A large small city Mayan kingdom. They accoustomed captives into their own society. Organzied an empire that brought political stability to northen Yucatan, who it lost its empire to.
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100-75 C.E.). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600.
a book containing a versioin of the Mayan story of creation.
"rubber people," colossal human heads to honor rulers, huge pyramids, trade jade/obsidian, systematically destroyed decline
beans, squash, chilis, maize (later staple), tomatoes
no large domesticated animals --> no wheeled vehicles
maize, ceremonial centers with temple pyramids, calendar, human sacrifice rituals, ball game
heirs of Olmecs, in Guatemala, cotton and cacao
most important Maya political center
warriors have prestige, captives were slaves or sacrificial victims
loose empire in Yucatan, absorb captives, city-kingdom
800 CE, invasion, disease, natural catastrophes
hierarchical; kings, priests, hereditary nobility / merchants / architects, artisans / peasants, slaves
solar and ritual years
ideographic and syllabic; books destroyed by Spanish
sacrifices so gods maintain agricultural cycles, bloodletting rituals for rain
Maya creation myth (gods create humans from maize and water)
heirs of Olmecs like Mayans, highlands of Mexico
high point in Teotihuacan society
400-600 CE, painting and murals reflect importance of priests, huge pyramids, rulers/priests dominate society, obsidian tools and orange pottery, merchants trade, no military organization/conquest until 500 CE, calendar, writing system, religious sacrifices
early Andean society
Peru/Bolivia region, 1000 BC
South America agriculture
beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton, fishing, pottery, temples, pyramids in ceremonial centers
900-300 BC, Peru area, no info, stone carvings, arose when maize became an important crop in South America, cotton textiles, fishing nets; gold, silver, copper metallurgy;
, no writing
300-700 CE, early Andean
, northern Peru, irrigation, trade, military, no writing; pottery painting, ceramics
hunting and gathering until 19th, 20th centuries
turn to agriculture around 3000 BC (root crops, herding animals)
from SE Asia, to New Guinea, to Polynesia (outrigger canoes allow safe sailing, brought agriculture and domesticated animals), to Micronesia and Madagascar
from New Guinea to Tonga (1500-500 BC), earliest Austronesians to sail into Pacific, establish agricultural villages, pottery with geometric designs
pottery, obsidian, shells (jewelry), stone tools, feathers traded
hierarchical chiefdoms (tension led to migration), semi/divine chiefs led public rituals/oversaw irrigation