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140 terms

Veterinary Medical Terminology Chapter 7 Review

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urinary system
removes wastes from the body by constantly filtering blood
urea
major waste product of protein metabolism; filtered by kidney and used in some diagnostic tests to determine the health status of the kidney
homeostasis
stable internal environment
urin/o, ur/o
combining forms meaning urine or pertaining to the urinary organs
retroperitoneally
word that means located behind the lining of the abdominal cavity or outside the peritoneal cavity
ren/o, nephr/o
combining forms for kidney
cortex
outer layer of the kidney
cortic/o
combining form meaning outer layer; used to describe the outer region of many organs
medulla
inner layer of the kidney
medull/o
combining form meaning inner or middle portion; used to describe the middle or inner portion of many organs
nephron
functional unit of the kidney
glomerulus
cluster of capillaries that filter blood; surrounded by Bowman's capsule
glomerul/o
combining form for glomerulus; means to wind into a ball
glomeruli
plural form of glomerulus
renal pelvis
area of kidney where the nephrons collect before entering the ureters
pyel/o
combining form for renal pelvis
calyces
irregular cuplike spaces that collect urine from the kidney
hilus
concave depression that serves as the point of attachment of the renal blood vessels, nerves, and ureter
Bowman's capsule
cup-shaped structure that contains the glomerulus
proximal convoluted tubules
hollow tubes located between Bowman's capsule and the loops of Henle that are involved in reabsorption
loop of Henle
U-shaped turn in the convoluted tubule of the kidney located between the proximal and distal convoluted tubules that is involved in reabsorption; has ascending and descending loop
distal convoluted tubules
hollow tubes located between the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules that are involved in secretion
collecting tubules
hollow tubes that carry urine from the cortex to the renal pelvis
convoluted
rolled or coiled
ureters
pair of narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
ureter/o
combining form for ureter
trigone
where the ureters enter the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
singular hollow muscular organ that holds urine
cyst/o
combining form for urinary bladder
sphincters
ringlike muscles that close a passageway
urination, excretion, voiding, elimination, micturition
5 terms used to describe the act of excreting urine
erythropoietin
hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
antidiuretic
hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland that suppresses urine formation by reabsorbing more water; abbreviated ADH
aldosterone
hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulates electrolyte blanace via the reabsorption of sodium
urethra
tube extending from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
urethr/o
combining form for urethra
urethral meatus
external opening of the urethra
meat/o
combining form for opening
uropoiesis
process of urine production
-poiesis
formation
-chrome
color
turbid
cloudy
cystocentesis
surgical puncture of the urinary bladder, usually to collect urine; performed with needle and syringe
cystography
radiographic study of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter; the contrast material used in the urinary bladder is water-soluble
cystogram
radiographic film of the urinary bladder after contrast material has been placed in the urinary bladder via a urethral catheter
retrograde
going backward
cystoscopy
visual examination of the urinary bladder using a fiberoptic instrument
cystoscope
fiberoptic instrument used to access the interior of the urinary bladder
intravenous pyelogram
radiographic study of the kidney (especially the renal pelvis) and ureters in which a dye is injected into a vein to define structures more clearly
-pneumo
air
pneumocystography
radiographic study of the urinary bladder after air has been placed in the bladder via a urethral catheter
radiography
imaging of internal structures that is created by exposing specialized film to x-rays
scout film
plain X-ray made without the use of contrast material
retrograde pyelogram
radiographic study of the kidney and ureters in which a contrast material is placed directly in the urinary bladder
urinalysis
examination of urine components; abbreviated UA
urinary catheterization
insertion of a tube through the urethra into the urinary bladder (usually to collect urine)
catheter
hollow tube that is inserted into a body cavity to inject or remove fluid
albuminuria
presence of the major blood protein in urine
anuria
complete suppression of urine production
bacteriuria
presence of bacteria in urine
crystalluria
urine with naturally produced angular solid of definitive form (crystals)
dysuria
difficult or painful urination
glucosuria, glycosuria
glucose (sugar) in urine
hematuria
blood in urine
ketonuria
presence of ketones in urine
nocturia
excessive urination at night
oliguria
scanty or little urine
pollakiuria
frequent urination
polyuria
excessive urination
proteinuria
presence of proteins in urine
pyuria
pus in urine
stranguria
slow or painful urination
azotemia
presence of urea or other nitrogenous elements in the blood
calculus
abnormal mineral deposit
lith/o
combining form for calculus
casts
fibrous or protein materials found in the urine with renal disease or other abnormality
crystals
naturally produced angular solid of definitive form
cystalgia, cystodynia
urinary bladder pain
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
cystocele
displacement of the urinary bladder through the vaginal wall
epispadias
abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsum of the penis
feline lower urinary tract disease
common disease of cats in which cystitis, urethritis, and crystalluria are found; abbreviated FLUTD
glomerulonephritis
inflammation of the kidney involving the glomeruli
hydroneprhosis
dilation of the renal pelvis as a result of an obstruction to urine flow
hydroureter
distension of the ureter with urine caused by any blockage
hypospadias
abnormal condition in which the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis
inappropriate urination
eliminating urine at the wrong time or in the wrong place
incontinence
inability to control excretory functions
interstitial cystitis
inflammation within the wall of the urinary bladder
-lithiasis
suffix meaning the presence of stones or calculi
nephrectasis
distension of the kidneys
distension
enlargement
-ectasis
suffix meaning distension or stretching
nephritis
inflammation of the kidneys
nephrolith
kidney stone or renal calculus
nephromalacia
abnormal softening of the kidney
nephropathy
disease of the kidneys
nephrosclerosis
abnormal hardening of the kidney
nephrosis
abnormal condition of the kidney(s)
prerenal
before the kidney
postrenal
after the kidney
prolapse
downward displacement of a body organ
-ptosis
suffix meaning drooping or dropping down
nephroptosis
prolapsed kidney
pyelitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
renal failure
inability of the kidneys to function
acute
occurring suddenly or over a short period
chronic
having a longer onset
nephrotoxin
poison having destructive effects on the kidneys
polyuria
excessive urination
polydipsia
excessive drinking
diuresis
elevated excretion of urine
diuretics
drugs that increase urine production
renal infarction
obstruction of blood flow through the kidneys
uremia
waste products in the blood
ureterectasis
distension of the ureter
ureterolith
stone in the ureters
urethritis
inflammation of the urethra
urethrostenosis
stricture of the urethra
stricture
abnormal band of tissue narrowing a passage
urinary retention
inability to completely empty the urinary bladder
urinary tract infection
invasion of microorganisms in the urinary system, which results in local cellular injury; abbreviated UTI
urolith, cystolith
urinary bladder stone
cystectomy
surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
cystopexy
surgical fixation of the urinary bladder to the abdominal wall
cystoplasty
surgical repair of the urinary bladder
cystostomy
surgical creation of a new opening between the skin and urinary bladder
cystotomy
surgical incision into the urinary bladder
dialysis
procedure to remove blood waste products when the kidneys are no longer functioning
peritoneal dialysis
removal of blood waste products by fluid exchange through the peritoneal cavity
hemodialysis
removal of blood waste products by filtering blood through a machine
lithotripsy
destruction of stone using ultrasonic waves traveling through water
-tripsy
crush
nephrectomy
surgical removal of a kidney
nephropexy
surgical fixation of a kidney to the abdominal wall
ureterectomy
surgical removal of the ureter
ureteroplasty
surgical repair of the ureter
urethrostomy
surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin
perineal urethrostomy
surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin between the anus and scrotum