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ISS 220 Exam 3 Chapter 12
Terms in this set (13)
When did Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) appear?
They first appeared 200k ya(likely evolved from heidelbergensis, but the exact way remains unclear)
earliest evidence(backed by several researchers) of fossils come from africa (omo, in ethiopia 195ka)
What happened by 33k ya according to the fossil record?
all fossils are modern Homo sapiens in form.
What are three prominent models that explain the emergence of AMH?
out of africa
multi-regionalism or regional continuity
What are three prominent models that explain the emergence of AMH(out of africa)?
also called replacement hypothesis
argues that H. erectus left africa 1 mya, but H. sapiens left africa 100-200 kya and replaced all other hominin populations completely by 33 kya
strongest evidence came from tDNA data that showed the depth of the modern human tDNA tree was less than 200 kya old, and had its deepest (oldest root in Africa)
another term associated with this hypothesis is the Mitochondrial Eve" hypothesis (proposes that Variants on tDNA are limited; all world groups share "recent" mutations; suggests a single female ancestor for all modern humans dating to -200kya)
What are three prominent models that explain the emergence of AMH? (Multi-regionalism or regional continuity)
(proposes that ancestral humans left africa over 1 mya (as Homo erectus) and spread to Europe, Asia, S.E. Asia, as well as some that stayed in Africa)
Argues that there has always been a large amount of gene flow and that is how these different regional populations came to look so similar
argues for continuities in skeletal form over time in different parts of the world ("Regional Continuity")
What are three prominent models that explain the emergence of AMH? (Assimilation)
Suggests interbreeding between groups, e.g. with Neanderthals
When did some of the earliest migrations to Australia take place?
50,000 years ago
after AMH make out of Africa, where do we find the oldest fossils?
Middle East (Israel, 115k ya) and Qafzeh (110 kya)
When do AMH make it to Europe? What's the evidence?
Close to 40,000 y/o (e.g. Romanian Iron Gates, 37,800 y/o)
What evidence do we have of some the semi-permanent settlements created by AMH by 40k y/a?
They made shelters using mammoth bones (e.g. the Mezzerich site)
What can we say about AMH and their tools?
They had a huge amount of variation in stone tool technologies.
tools are much more precisely made than in any previous period
used to make needles, awls, points, knives, harpoons, art.
What can we say about AMH and art?
Created Cave Art: symbolic behavior dating back over 30,000 yrs
pictures of large game animals and hunting, plus anthropomorphic figures (in europe, africa, and australia)
anatomically correct, well drawn
What does the term "Mitochondrial Eva" refer to?
The common direct maternal ancestor to all women alive today was born in East Africa around 180,000 years ago. Eve's lineage spread out and split into descendant lineages, characterized by distinct genetic mutations.
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