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Unit Review - Forces and Motion
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Gravity
Terms in this set (39)
Acceleration
Change in velocity over time. It includes speeding up, slowing down (deceleration) or changing direction.
Action
A force that is applied from one object to another. It is usually considered the initial or starting force, or the object that is "hitting" the other object.
Air resistance
The force of friction that air exerts on a moving object (sometimes called fluid friction). It involves a solid moving through a gas.
Balanced Force
Force that results in no change in motion
Dependent variable
The factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Energy
The ability to do work.
Extrapolate
To follow the trend or pattern in the data to extend the line in order to find unknown data points (adding data "outside" the drawn line)
Fluid Friction
A type of friction that occurs when an object moves through a fluid. It is sometimes referred to as air resistance when objects move through the air.
Fluid
Any substance that can flow, usually a liquid or a gas
Force
A push or pull
Frame of reference
The object an observer uses to measure motion by. This object is usually stationary in relation to the earth.
Friction
force that opposes (goes against) the direction of motion. It causes objects to slow down and eventually stop.
Gravity
A measure of the force of attraction that depends on the mass of two objects and the distance between them.
Increment
An increase, addition or gain by regular consecutive amounts.
Independent variable
The factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes. This is the variable that causes a change in the dependent variable.
Inertia
An object's resistance to a change in its motion. (An object wanting to keep doing what it is already doing)
Interpolate
To find unknown data points within known data points (finding data "inside" the drawn line)
Line graph
A visual representation of a relationship between two factors for a relationship that is continuous (unlike pie charts and histograms)
Line of best fit
A smooth line that reflects the general pattern of a graph, passing near or through graphed data; used to describe data and predict where new data will appear on the graph.
Mass
The amount of matter in an object
Momentum
The strength or force that something has when it is moving. Determines how difficult it is to stop an object's motion. The momentum of an object is mass times velocity. (Momentum (P) =mv).
Motion
The change of an object's position relative to another position
Newton
Unit of measurement for force (N)
Newton's First Law of Motion
An object at rest will stay at rest, an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Newton's Second Law of Motion
F=MxA where F is force, M is mass and A is acceleration. This equation describes how force is related to the mass of an object and the rate at which it accelerates. (This law can be used to explain why objects with mass being accelerated by gravity have weight.)
Newton's Third Law of Motion
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This law describes the relationship between any two objects that collide or hit each other.
Origin
The point (0,0) where the x-axis and the y-axis intersect in a coordinate plane.
Plotting
To place a point on a graph that represents the information from the data
Projectile Motion
The curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth
Reaction
The force that is applied from the object getting hit, back onto the object that hit first.
Rest
A state of not moving
Rolling Friction
A type of friction that occurs when an object rolls over a solid surface.
Scaling
The assigning of numbers to the x and y axis on a graph. The increments must be equal between each line on the graph.
Sliding Friction
A type of friction that occurs when solid surfaces slide over each other.
Speed
The distance an object travels in a certain period of time. (Speed = Distance/Time.)
Static Friction
The type of friction that opposes the motion of objects that are not moving. Static friction is always greater than kinetic friction. All stationary objects must overcome static friction to start moving.
Unbalanced Force
A force that causes an object to start moving, stop moving or change direction
Velocity
Speed in a given direction
Weight
A measure of the pull of gravity on an object. (The amount of force gravity causes the mass of an object to exert.) Weight changes based on the location of an object.
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