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56 terms

microbiology chapter 7 and 8

STUDY
PLAY
Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism:
a. Macronutrient
b. Trace elements
c. Growth factor
d. Element
e. Water
macronutrient
Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:
a. Growth factor
b. Trace element
c. Macronutrient
d. Water
e. Element
trace element
The term phototroph refers to an organism that:
a. Uses CO2 for its carbon source
b. Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
c. Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
d. Gets energy from sunlight
e. Does not need a carbon source
Gets energy from sunlight
The term chemotroph refers to an organism that:
a. Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
b. Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs
c. Gets energy from sunlight
d. Uses CO2 for its carbon source
e. Does not need a carbon source
Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds
Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called:
a. Phototrophs
b. Parasites
c. Lithoautotrophs
d. Autotrophs
e. Saprobes
Saprobes
The term obligate refers to:
a. The ability to exist in a wide range of conditions
b. Using chemicals for energy production
c. Using oxygen for metabolism
d. Using light for energy production
e. Existing in a very narrow niche
Existing in a very narrow niche
The term facultative refers to:
a. The ability to exist in a wide range of conditions
b. Using chemicals for energy production
c. Existing in a very narrow niche
d. Using oxygen for metabolism
e. Using light for energy production
The ability to exist in a wide range of conditions
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called:
a. Active transport
b. Facilitated diffusion
c. Osmosis
d. Diffusion
e. Endocytosis
Diffusion
The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called:
a. Active transport
b. Endocytosis
c. Diffusion
d. Osmosis
e. Facilitated diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called:
a. Osmosis
b. Active transport
c. Endocytosis
d. Facilitated diffusion
e.Diffusion
Endocytosis
When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed:
a. Exocytosis
b. Phagocytosis
c. Pinocytosis
d. Facilitated diffusion
e. Facilitated transport
Phagocytosis
In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting:
a. All of the choices are correct
b. Isotonic
c. Hypotonic
d. Hypertonic
Hypotonic
All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth except:
a. Psychrophiles
b. Facultative anaerobes
c. Mesophiles
d. Anaerobes
e. Capnophiles
Psychrophiles
A microaerophile:
a. Grows best in an anaerobic jar
b. Needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen
c. Grows with or without oxygen
d. Requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels
e. None of the choices are correct
Requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels
The toxic super oxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes:
a. Super oxide dismutase and catalase
b. Super oxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxidases
c. Super oxide dismutase and oxidase
d. Catalase and oxidase
e. Catalase and hydrogen peroxidases
Super oxide dismutase and catalase
An organism that cannot tolerate an oxygen environment is a/an:
a. Aerobe
b. Facultative anaerobe
c. Microaerophile
d. Obligate aerobe
e. Obligate anaerobe
Obligate anaerobe
An organism that can use gaseous oxygen in metabolism and has the enzymes to process toxic oxygen products is a/an:
a. Obligate anaerobe
b. Aerobe
c. Microaerophile
d. Obligate aerobe
e. Facultative anaerobe
Aerobe
A halophile would grow best in:
a. Hot geyser springs
b. Fresh water ponds
c. Arid, desert soil
d. Salt lakes
e. Acid pools
Salt lakes
The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the:
a. Prophase
b. Log phase
c. Lag phase
d. Death phase
e. Stationary phase
Lag phase
A microorganism that does not have catalase or super oxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with:
a. High acidity
b. Carbon dioxide
c. High salt
d. Temperatures above 37° C
e. Oxygen
oxygen
An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32° C is called a/an:
a. Psychrophile
b. Extremophile
c. Facultative psychrophile
d. Thermoduric
e. Thermophile
Facultative psychrophile
When microbes live independently but cooperate and share nutrients, it is called:
a. Mutualism
b. Synergism
c. Symbiosis
d. Antibiosis
e. Satellitism
Synergism
The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the:
a. Growth curve
b. Culture time
c. Generation time
d. Binary fission
e. Death phase
Generation time
The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is the:
a. Telophase
b. Lag phase
c. Log phase
d. Death phase
e. Stationary phase
Stationary phase
The phase of the bacterial growth curve that shows the maximum rate of cell division is the:
a. Lag phase
b. Log phase
c. Stationary phase
d. Death phase
e. Prophase
Log phase
Enzymes are:
a. Proteins that function as catalysts
b. All of the choices are correct
c. Not needed for catabolic reactions
d. Used up in chemical reactions
e. Broken down in reactions that require energy input
Proteins that function as catalysts
Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called:
a. Exergonic
b. Phosphorylation
c. Anabolism
d. Glycolysis
e. Fermentation
Anabolism
Each of the following are true of enzymes except:
a. They may or may not require cofactors
b. They can be used over and over
c. They increase the activation energy of a reaction
d. All of the choices are true of enzymes
e. Their active site is specific to the substrate
They increase the activation energy of a reaction
Enzymes that are only produced when substrate is present are termed:
a. Exoenzymes
b. Endoenzymes
c. Induced enzymes
d. Conjugative enzymes
e. Constitutive enzymes
Induced enzymes
When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product this control is called:
a. Enzyme repression
b. Enzyme induction
c. Negative feedback
d. Competitive inhibition
e. None of the choices are correct
Enzyme repression
In addition to electrons, which of the following is also involved in electron transfer?
a. Carbon dioxide
b. Hydrogen
c. ADP
d. Glucose
e.Carbon
Hydrogen
The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins:
a. Oxidative phosphorylation
b. Fermentation
c. The Krebs cycle
d. The electron transport system
e. Glycolysis
The Krebs cycle
In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the:
a. Chloroplasts
b. Cytoplasm
c. Mitochondria
d. Cell membrane
e. Ribosomes
Cell membrane
In which pathway is the most NADH generated?
a. Krebs cycle
b. Glycolysis
c. Mixed acid fermentation
d. Alcohol fermentation
e. Electron transport system
Krebs cycle
In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, what is the maximum number of ATP generated?
a. 36 ATP
b. 3 ATP
c. 24 ATP
d. 2 ATP
e. 38 ATP
38 ATP
In which stage of aerobic respiration is water produced?
a. Electron transport system
b. Glycolysis
c. The Krebs cycle
Electron transport system
Which of the following is not true of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
a. ATP is generated by a chemiosmotic mechanism
b. Occurs in thylakoid membranes
c. Generates glucose from CO2 and H2O
d. Photons cause magnesium to release electrons
e. Generates NADPH
Occurs in thylakoid membranes
Amination is the addition of a/an _____ group to a carbon skeleton:
a. Carboxyl
b. Amino
c. None of the choices are correct
d. Phosphate
e. Hydroxyl
amino
The property of organisms to integrate catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve cell efficiency is called:
a. Anabolism
b. Biosynthesis
c. Metabolism
d. Catabolism
e. Amphibolism
Amphibolism
Which of the following are characteristics of the Calvin cycle?
a. A process the requires light
b. Nitrogen is fixed into an organic form
c. Produces glucose as an end product
d. all of these are correct
Produces glucose as an end product
What compound has the highest concentration in a cell?
a. H2O
b. CH4
c. CO2
d. NH3
e. Glucose
H2O
Which of the following is not a major element of a microbial cell?
a. Copper
b. Hydrogen
c. Nitrogen
d. Carbon
e. Oxygen
Copper
An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is:
a. Calcium
b. Zinc
c. Iron
d. Potassium
e. Magnesium
Iron
Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm:
a. Pathogens
b. Commensals
c. Mesophiles
d. Halophiles
e. Thermophiles
Pathogens
The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and cell expenditure of energy is called:
a. Active transport
b. Diffusion
c. Osmosis
d. Endocytosis
e. Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Halo bacteria regulate osmotic pressure by:
a. Changing their cell wall to provide additional osmotic protection
b. Excluding salt from the environment
c. Releasing salt to the environment
d. None of these are correct
e. Absorbing salt from their environment
Absorbing salt from their environment
Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab bench top, on the shelf of a 37° C incubator and on the shelf of a 50° C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37° C and 50° C, slight growth out on the bench top and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?
a. Mesophile
b. Anaerobe
c. Halophile
d. Psychrophile
e. Capnophile
Psychrophile
When it is important to count the number of cells, determine cell size and differentiate between dead and live cells a ___ is used:
a. methylene dye indicator
b. flow cytometer
c. SEM
d. coulter counter
flow cytometer
When microbes in close nutritional relationship and one benefits but the other is not harmed, it is called:
a. Synergism
b. Symbiosis
c. Commensalism
d. Mutualism
e. Satellitism
commensalism
A type of cofactor would be:
a. Metallic ions
b. Ribozymes
c. Vitamins
d. Substrates
e. Active sites
Metallic ions
All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called :
a. Catabolism
b. Redox reactions
c. Metabolism
d. Cellular respiration
e. Phosphorylation
metabolism
Enzymes that function inside a cell are:
a. Endoenzymes
b. Exoenzymes
c. Constitutive enzymes
d. Induced enzymes
e. Apoenzymes
Endoenzymes
Enzymes that are always present, regardless of the amount of substrate are:
a. Apoenzymes
b. Exoenzymes
c. Constitutive enzymes
d. Axoenzymes
e. Regulated enzymes
Constitutive enzymes
Feedback inhibition is best described as:
a. Substrate binding to enzyme in non-competitive site
b. Product binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription
c. Substrate binding to DNA, blocking enzyme transcription
d. Product binding to enzyme in non-competitive site
e. None of the choices are correct
Product binding to enzyme in non-competitive site
Each FADH2 from the Krebs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _____ ATP's:
a. 5
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
e. 4
2
Fermentation:
a. Is equivalent to aerobic respiration in ATP production
b. Requires an organic electron acceptor
c. Only occurs in aerobic organisms
d. None of the choices are correct
e. Requires oxygen
Requires an organic electron acceptor