40 terms

Hist 101 Final

. Cities and towns grew rapidly between 1000 and 1300. One reason for their rapid growth was that improved agricultural practices (the agricultural revolution) made more food available. According to your text, a major cause for urban (city) population growth was _______________.
increasing short and long distance trade
Your text mentions numerous crusades that were launched in an effort to gain control of Jerusalem. Most failed in this objective. Which of the following succeeded?
first crusade
. "Courtly love" was a concept that emerged in connection with the concept of chivalry. This concept explained how knights should act toward women. In regards to marriage and sex, noble women could be ___________ while peasant women could be ___________.
courted with manners; ordered to have sex
Following the collapse of the Kingdom Charlemagne ruled (the Carolingian Empire) two new methods of political organization emerged to fill the region's political vacuum. These were ___________ and ___________.
feudal states; self governing cities
Feudalism, where two people agreed that one would give something (land, a yearly salary) to another. In return, the recipient promised service (military, labor). The giver was the "lord" and the recipient the "vassal." "Vassals" could make agreements with more than one person and could in turn promise lands or income to someone else. Thus, feudalism did not create a clear social "pyramid" with one person on top except in one country, invaded in 1066 by Normans. What was the nation that had this clear "pyramid" of feudal obligations?
A. France
B. Germany
C. Holland
D. Italy
E. Russia

The years after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire, according to your text, were difficult for the Catholic Church. Local leaders (nobles) took control of Church properties, monasteries and bishophrics in the 800 and 900s. The first stirrings of Catholic efforts to reform this system began in monasteries in the 900s. Which monastery started this reform movement?
"A new and momentous phase in the history of the reform movement began in 1073 with the election of Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085)." What was the major event defined his time as Pope?
The Investiture Controversy
. During the twelfth and thirteenth century the Catholic Church experienced a burst of lay (regular people) piety. Which of the following groups were NOT part of this explosion of piety?
A. Waldensians
B. Cathars
C. Franciscans
D. Dominicans
E. A & B were NOT

In what way did the recovery of classical learning affect medieval intellectual life?
A. by acquiring Muslim ideas
B. by expanding and increasing literacy
C. by developing new philosophical ideas
D. helping create and spread universities
E. all EXCEPT answer A

ALL A-D are true
According to your text, "The closest architectural equivalents of the Divine Comedy are the great medieval ___________."
During the 1300s Europe experienced some problems. Which of the following occurred in the 1300s?
A. Great Famine
B. Black Death
C. Jacquerie rebellion
D. English peasant's revolt
E. Hundred Years War starts

From 1305 until 1378 the Pope resided in Avignon, a small town in southwestern France. During this period the Pope was essentially a hostage held by the King of France. Finally the Pope returned to Rome, only to die within a year. The election of his successor triggered a major problem for the Catholic Church that lasted until 1417. The embarrassing power struggle between the multiple people calling themselves pope was known as the ___________________.
Great Schism
The ongoing struggle that began in the 1300s between England and France over ownership of lands in present-day France was known as the ______________________.
Hundred Years War
During the 1400s Russia threw off the control of the Mongols. Immediately the independent Russia fought with Europeans. Their main enemy was the nearby nation of Poland. The major source of hostility between Russia and Poland was ________________.

During the 1400s Russia threw off the control of the Mongols. Immediately the independent Russia fought with Europeans. Their main enemy was the nearby nation of Poland. The major source of hostility between Russia and Poland was ________________.
conflicting religions
Technology advanced dramatically during this period: which technology emerged in the period of the late Middle Ages?
A. cannons
B. magnetic compass
C. clocks
D. books printed with movable type
E. hand held firearms

. This group conquered most of Asia during the 1200s under the direction of their leader, Temüjin. Though they were wildly destructive, the most significant benefit of this new Mongol empire was __________________.
opening of silk road
This group conquered Constantinople in 1453, ending the existence of the Byzantine Empire.
What factor(s) encouraged European nations to begin their wide-ranging exploration?
African gold
B. newer ship construction technology
C. better navigation techniques and tools
D. spices from the far east
E. familiarity with Atlantic Ocean travel

. Hernan Cortes, a Spanish conquistador, with the assistance of thousands of disgruntled Native peoples, conquered this nation in 1521.
The huge silver mine at Potosí was the largest in the world. This mine needed large numbers of workers to keep the silver flowing. What was the nationality of most (if not all) of the mine workers?
Native americans (indians)
The word "renaissance" means "rebirth." However, according to the text a better term to sum up Renaissance ideals than "rebirth" would be ___________________.
What was "the most fundamental reason that the Renaissance began in Italy"?
huge urban population
Which of the following is NOT a Renaissance artist the text described?
Why did the Italian Renaissance decline around 1550?
A. Italy was invaded by the King of France
B. end of the trade monopoly with Asia
C. resurgent power of the Catholic Church
D. constant warfare in Italy from 1499 to 1529
E. European naval exploration from 1492 to 1540

The northern and Italian Renaissances differed from one another from their very beginnings. The northern Renaissance was built upon the ideas from Italy. However in the north the Renaissance built upon the traditions already present: a less secular, more agricultural way of life. The northern Renaissance thinkers, like their Italian counterparts turned to antiquity for advice. The Italians turned to ______________ and the northerners turned to _______________.
The Romans; The Bible
The Reformation began in 1517 when this monk, _______________________, asked a series of questions about existing Church doctrine and attempted to "cleanse contemporary Christianity from its abuses."
Martin Luther
Unlike earlier attempts to challenge the power of the Catholic Church, the Reformation that began in 1517 was successful because _____________________.
some German princes openly supported the new religion
"By the 1550s, Protestantism had become a truly international movement; in so doing, however, it also split into a number of competing traditions." Which of the following was NOT one of these early Protestant traditions?
Based on your reading of the primary source in the text, what was Martin Luther's opinion regarding priests, nuns and monks and sex?
sex was okay because trying to stop it was unnatural, causing people to sin more
Why did England become a Protestant country?
A. the King wanted a male heir
B. the King was in love with one of his wife's ladies-in-waiting
C. the King had married his brother's wife and wanted an annulment
D. the Pope continued to delay acting on the King's lawsuit because of fear over the result of the trial
E. the King wanted to have a son who could inherit the throne

What reason(s) did your text give for the calling the period 1540 to 1660 as one of the most turbulent in European history?
A. massive inflation, called the "price revolution"
B. intense religious hatred between Catholics and Protestants
C. population growth and stagnant food production decreases actual wages
D. civil wars

What was the major cause of the nearly ceaseless wars that raged across Europe for nearly 100 years?
religious differences
What factor(s) did NOT contribute to the decline of Spanish power by the mid 1600s?
religious conflicts with Pope
Starting in 1484 Pope Innocent VIII ordered the inquisition to search out these individuals. By 1660, after nearly two centuries the hunt continued for these people. To ensure the protection of those living in Europe, tens of thousands of this group, considered to be devil worshippers, were put on trial. These people were accused of ___________________.
being witches
The mid to late 1500s were the time of the northern Renaissance. The artists of the period drew upon the techniques of the Italian Renaissance. They further explored "the greatness and wretchedness of man to the fullest." Your text mentions three of these Dutch "Golden Age" painters. Which one does your text call "the greatest of all Netherlandish painters"?
Rembrandt van Rijn
The primary source document, a speech from Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet argued what main idea?
Power of Monarchy is Absolute
. England in the 1600s experienced a series of political conflicts pitting the Crown against Parliament. First there was the English Civil War which Parliament won. After the Protectorate (Parliament's time of ruling) dissolved the son of the previous king ascended the throne. In 1689, less than three years after this king, Charles II, died, England underwent a second struggle. Parliament's bloodless victory in this second conflict was called ___________________.
Glorious Revolution
One French King more than any other is known for his efforts to transform France into an Absolutist regime. During his famous reign, "The Sun King" as he was known, fought numerous wars, increased the efficiency of the taxation structure, involved France as a major player in international politics, weakened the power of the nobles and further required all nobles to attend on him in his palace at Versailles. This King was _______________.
Louis XIV
The text noted a number of nations in central and eastern Europe that became more centralized. Absolute rule spread throughout the period from 1660 to 1789. According to your text, which of the following nations was NOT ruled by a powerful absolute monarch in this period?
The text summarized the gains of different countries at the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht that ended the war of Spanish Succession. Out of the major powers in Europe at the end of the war one nation was the clear winner. Other nations preserved their lands, gained small possessions or merely preserved their existence. The major winner gained "large chunks of territory" and "the right to be the sole seller of slaves" to another nation's colonies. Which nation was the "winner?"